کارایی روش‌های زمین‌آمار در پهنه‌بندی احتمال حضور زادآوری بلوط ایرانی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد جنگلداری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

چکیده

برای بررسی کارایی مدل­های زمین‌آماری ناپارامتری شامل کریجینگ و کوکریجینگ شاخص و احتمال در پهنه­بندی احتمال حضور زادآوری بلوط ایرانی (.Quercus brantii Lindl) در عرصه جنگل و پیشنهاد مناسب­ترین مدل، عرصه جنگلی به وسعت 200 هکتار در نزدیکی شهر یاسوج به­­صورت منظم - تصادفی در شبکه­­ای به ابعاد 150×250 متر آماربرداری شد. مشخصه­های عمومی و جنگل­شناسی توده جنگلی در قطعات نمونه­ دایره­ای شکل اصلی با مساحت 1000 مترمربع و تعداد زادآوری­ بلوط ایرانی در چهار عدد قطعه­نمونه دایره­ای شکل هر یک با شعاع 55/1 متر در راستای چهار جهت اصلی جغرافیای
به­ فاصله نه متر از مرکز قطعه­نمونه اصلی آماربرداری شد. برای ترسیم واریوگرام از برازش مدل­های سقف­دار دایره­ای، کروی، تترااسفریکال، پنتااسفریکال، نمایی، گوسی، رشنال کوادراتیک، اثر حفره، کی بیسل، جی بیسل و پایدار استفاده شد. برای اعتبارسنجی دقت مدل از روش ارزیابی متقابل استفاده شد. مدل کریجینگ احتمال پنتااسفریکال دارای قوی­ترین ساختار مکانی (63/75 درصد) و بالاترین مقدار اعتبار از نظر دقت شامل شاخص­های ME (0106/0-)، ASE (4424/0)، RMSE (4470/0) و RMSS (0113/1) است و به­عنوان مناسب­ترین مدل پیشنهاد می­شود. رسم نیم تغییرنمای زادآوری و برازش مدل ذکر­شده بر وجود ناهمسانگردی در کمیت نیم تغییرنما دلالت دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The efficiency of geostatistical methods in zoning the probability of presence of Persian Oak regeneration

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shirin Alizadeh 1
  • Alireza Salehi 2
  • Mohammad Reza Mirzaei 2
1 M.Sc. of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Yasouj University, Yasouj, I. R. Iran
2 Assistant professor, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Yasouj University, Yasouj, I. R. Iran
چکیده [English]

To study on competence of nonparametric geostatistical models including Indicator Kriging, Probability Kriging, Indicator Cokriging and Probability CoKriging, in zoning the probability of presence of Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl) regeneration in a forest stand to suggest the most suitable model and produce its related map, a forest stand with an area about 200 ha in nearby Yasouj was inventoried. Using a systematic random grid, 150 m by 250 m, general and silvicultural characteristics of the forest stand were inventoried in circular sample plots with an area of 1000 m2. the number of Persian oak regeneration were counted
To study on competence of nonparametric geostatistical models including Indicator Kriging, Probability Kriging, Indicator Cokriging and Probability CoKriging, in zoning the probability of presence of Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl) regeneration in a forest stand to suggest the most suitable model and produce its related map, a forest stand with an area about 200 ha in nearby Yasouj was inventoried. Using a systematic random grid, 150 m by 250 m, general and silvicultural characteristics of the forest stand were inventoried in circular sample plots with an area of 1000 m2. the number of Persian oak regeneration were counted in four small-circular plots with a radius of 1.55 m located with a distance of nine meters from the center of the main plots in line with the four main geographic directions. Using Geostatistic Analysis in ArcGIS10.2, the models of circular, spherical, tetraspherical, pentaspherical, exponential, gaussian, rational quadratic, hole effect, k-bessel, J-Bessel and stable were fited on the variogram. The cross validation method was used to evaluate the accuracy of the model. The results showed that the pantaspherical model of probability kriging have the strongest spatial structure (75.63%) and the highest level of credit in aspect of accuracy, ME (-0.0106), ASE (0.4424), RMSE (0.4470) and RMSS (1.0113) and would be suggested as the suitable model. After drawing semivariogram of regenerations and fixing the suggested model on that, they indicated on anisotropy in semivariogram quantity.
four small-circular plots with a radius of 1.55 m located with a distance of nine meters from the center of the main plots in line with the four main geographic directions. Using Geostatistic Analysis in ArcGIS10.2, the models of circular, spherical, tetraspherical, pentaspherical, exponential, gaussian, rational quadratic, hole effect, k-bessel, J-Bessel and stable were fited on the variogram. The cross validation method was used to evaluate the accuracy of the model. The results showed that the pantaspherical model of probability kriging have the strongest spatial structure (75.63%) and the highest level of credit in aspect of accuracy, ME (-0.0106), ASE (0.4424), RMSE (0.4470) and RMSS (1.0113) and would be suggested as the suitable model. After drawing semivariogram of regenerations and fixing the suggested model on that, they indicated on anisotropy in semivariogram quantity. The map of spatial distribution of regeneration could be an applicable guide in plantation projects in Zagros Region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Forest regeneration
  • Geostatistics
  • Nonparametric stochastic
  • Yasouj
- Adhikary, P. P., Ch. J. Dash, R. Bej & H. Chandrasekharan, 2011. Indicator and probability kriging methods for delineating Cu, Fe, and Mn contamination in groundwater of Najafgarh Block, Delhi, India, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 176(1-4): 663-676.

- Akhavan, R. & C. Kleinn, 2009. On the potential of kriging for estimation and mapping of forest plantation stock (Case study: Beneshki plantation), Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 17(2): 303-318. (In Persian)

- Akhavan, R., M. Zobeiri, Gh. Zahedi Amiri, M. Namiranian & D. Mandallaz, 2006. Spatial structure and estimation of forest growing stock using geostatistical approach in the Caspian Region of Iran, Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 59(1): 89-102. (In Persian)

- Alijanpour, A., A. Banj Shafiei & J. Eshaghi Rad, 2010. Investigation of natural regeneration characteristics in west oak forests within different levels of site factors (case study: Piranshahr region), Iranian Journal of Forest, 2(3): 209-219. (In Persian)

- Anonymous, 2005. Multi-Purpose Forestry plan of Tulgahi, Forests, Range and Watershed Management Organization of Iran, Hedquarter of natural resources of K & B proviance, Innovations Green Life Development Co, 97 p.

- Darabi, H., S. Gholami & A. Sayad, 2017. Spatial variability of regeneration and tree species diversity in Zagros Forests, case study: Gahvare Forests, Kermanshah, Iranian Journal of applied ecology, 5(4): 45-58. (In Persian)

- Ganawa, E. S. M., M. A. M. Soom, M. H. Musa, A. R. M. Shariffa & A. Wayayoka, 2003. Spatial variability of total nitrogen, and available phosphorus of large rice field in Sawah Sempadan Malaysia, Science Asia Journal, 29: 7-12.

- Gebrehiwot, M., 2003. Assessment of natural regeneration diversity and distribution of forest tree species (A case study in Wondo-Wesha Catchment Awassa watershed Southern Ethiopia). Monograph Series. ITC the Netherlands, 102 p.

- Hasani Pak, A., 2004. Geostatistics. Tehran university press, Tehran, 314 p.

- Hossieni, A., M. H. Moayeri & H. Haidari, 2008. Effect of site elevation on natural regeneration and other characteristics of oak (Quercus brantii) in the Hyanan’s forest, Ilam, Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 15(1): 194-202. (In Persian)

- Jahangirian, Sh. & A. Salehi, 2015. The effect of topography factors on land use/cover changes of Yasouj forest park during 1965 to 2011, RS & GIS for Natural Resources, 6(2): 89-106. (In Persian)

- Johnson, K., J. M. Ver Hoef, K. Krivoruchko & N. Lucas, 2001. Using ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst. GIS by ESRI. Redlands, USA. 306 p.

- Karamshahi, A., A. Karami & G. Mohammadi, 2016. Structure quantitative spatial analysis model of Persian Oak species in two types of high forest and coppice of West Oak Forests (Case study: Karzan forests, Ilam Province), Forest Research and Development, 2(3): 205-218. (In Persian)

- Köhl, M., & Hussendörfer, E. (2000). Conversion of forests: approaches to determine the potential extension of regeneration using remote sensing and GIS. Allgemeine Forst-und Jagdzeitung, 171(5/6): 102-109.

- Korhonen, L., K. T. Korhonen, M. Rautiainen & P. Stenberg, 2006. Estimation of forest canopy cover: a comparison of field measurement techniques, Silva Fennica, 40(4): 577-588.

- Lister, A. J., R. Riemann & M. Hoppus, 2001. A noparametric geostatistical method for estimating species importance. Proceedings of Second Annual Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Sympossium, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. pp: 52-59.

- Mejia-Dominguez, N. R., A. Meave Jorge & C. Diaz-Avalos, 2012. Spatial structure of the abiotic environment and its association with sapling community structure and dynamics in a cloud forest, International journal of biometeorology, 56(2): 305-318.   

- Mou, P., R. H. Jones, D. Guo & A. Lister, 2005. Regeneration strategies, disturbance and plant interactions as organizers of vegetation spatial patterns in a pine forest,  Landscape Ecology, 20(8): 971-987.

- Naghavi, H., A. Fallah, Sh. Shataee, J. Soosani & H. Ramezani, 2014. Simulation of plantation map using the spatial pattern of natural trees to restore degraded forests in Zagros region, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 22(4): 664-671.

- Najafifar, A., 2011. Sexual regeneration frequency of forest species in Zagros area in relation to different ecological factors in Ilam province, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 19(2): 279-290. (In Persian)

- Namiranian, M., A. Henareh Khalyani, Gh. Zahedi Amiri & H. Ghazanfari, 2008. Study of different restoration and regeneration techniques in northern Zagros (Case study: Armardeh oak forest, Baneh, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 15(4): 386-397. (In Persian)

- Nanos, N., R. Calama, G. Montero & L. Gil, 2004. Geostatistical prediction of height diameter models, Forest ecology and management, 195(1-2): 221-235.

- Quinn, G. P. & M. J. Keough, 2007. Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge University press, Cambridge, UK, 537p.

- Salehzadeh, O., J. Es’haghi Rad & H. Maroofi, 2016. The effect of anthropogenic disturbance on flora and plant diversity in Oak forests of west (Baneh city), Forest research and Development, 2(3): 219-240. (In Persian)

- Vann, J. & D. Guibal, 2001. Beyond ordinary kriging; an overview of non-linear estimation. Monograph Series-Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 249-256.

- Webester, R. & M. A. Oliver, 2000. Geostatistics for environmental scientists. Wiley press, 271 p.

- Zobeiry, M., 1994. Forest Inventory. Tehran Uneversity press, Tehran, Iran, 401 p.