تغییرات فرم‏‏های هوموس در توده‎های راش و ممرز در جنگل دست‌نخورده و مدیریت‌شده (بررسی موردی: جنگل شصت کلاته گرگان)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای رشته جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه جنگل‎شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع‌طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده علوم جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع‌طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

5 دانشیار، دانشگاه جنگل و علوم زیستی بریتیش کلمبیا، ونکوور، کانادا

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تأثیر عوامل محیطی و توده بر تغییرات انواع فرم‌های هوموس در جنگل‏ مدیریت‌شده و دست‎نخورده شصت‎کلاته گرگان انجام شد. ابتدا نقشه‏های زمین‎شناسی، خاک، توپوگرافی و تیپ درختی روی‎هم‎گذاری شده و واحدهای همگن تعیین شدند. در هر واحد نقشه سه قطعه‌نمونه 20×20 متر انتخاب شد و پنج نیم‌رخ هوموس در هر قطعه‌نمونه حفر شد. انواع فرم‎ هوموس در سطوح اصلی و ثانویه با استفاده از طبقه‌بندی جدید اروپایی، شناسایی شدند. عوامل محیطی و خصوصیات توده در هر قطعه‌نمونه به‎عنوان عوامل مؤثر بر تغییرات فرم هوموس بررسی شدند. از آزمون کروسکال والیس و الگوریتم جنگل تصادفی بر اساس میانگین شاخص جینی برای تحلیل استفاده شد. سه فرم هوموس اصلی و یازده فرم ثانویه در منطقه شناسایی شد به‌طوری­‌که هوموس اصلی مول با 49 درصد و هوموس ثانویه الیگومول با 26 درصد فراوان‌ترین فرم‌های هوموس بودند. اختلاف معنی‎داری بین انواع فرم هوموس اصلی (p<0.05) و ثانویه (p<0.001) بین جنگل‏ مدیریت‌شده و دست‌نخورده مشاهده شد. تأثیر اغلب متغیرهای محیطی و خصوصیات توده بر تغییرات فرم‌های هوموس معنی‌دار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Model Humus forms changes in the beech and hornbeam stands in the old growth and managed forest (Case study: Shast-kalate forest of Gorgan)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoomeh Saeghi 1
  • Hashem Habashi 2
  • Omid Esmailzadeh 3
  • Jahangir Mohamadi 4
  • Tojtam Sajedi 5
1 Ph.D. Student of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forest Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, I.R. Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forest Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, I.R. Iran
3 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, I.R. Iran
4 Assistant Prof., Department of Forestry, Faculty of Forest Science, University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, I.R. Iran
5 Associate Prof., University of British Columbia Forest and Conservation Sciences, Vancouver, Canada
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental factors and stand properties on changes of humus forms in the managed and old growth forest of Gorgan. First we superimposed geological, soil, topography and tree type maps to producing homogeneous units. In each unit, three sample plots (20 × 20 meters) were selected and five humus profiles were described in each plot. Main and secondary humus forms were identified based on new European classification. Environmental factors and stand characteristics were investigated in each sample as factors influencing the changes in the humus form. Kruskal-Wallis test and random forest algorithm were used based on the Gini index for analysis. Three main humus forms and eleven secondary forms were identified in the research area, so that the main humus of the MULL (49%) and the secondary humus of the Oligomul (26%) were the most abundant humus forms. There was a significant difference between the main (p<0.01) and secondary (p<0.001) humus forms between the managed and old growth forest. The effect of most environmental variables and stand characteristics were significant on the changes of humus forms. The effective important variables in the main and secondary humus forms classification were thickness of H horizon, altitude from sea level, geographic direction and tree basal area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Organic Horizon
  • Random Forest
  • Gini Index
  • Humus Form
- Amini, R., 2018. Comparison of Silvicultural characteristics in Beech-Hornbeam stands at developmental stages of mid- elevation Hajikala. PhD thesis. Silviculture and Forest Ecology group. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Gorgan, Iran, 191 p. (In Persian)

- Andreetta, A., G. Cecchini & S. Carnicelli, 2018. Forest Humus Forms in Italy: a research approach, Applied Soil Ecology, 123: 384-390.

- Andreetta, A., R. Ciampalini, P. Moretti, S. Vingiani, G. Poggio, G. Matteucci, F. Tescari & S. Carnicelli, 2011. Forest humus forms as potential indicators of soil carbon storage in Mediterranean environments, Biology and Fertility of Soils, 47(1): 31-40.

- Anschlag, K., D. Tatti, N. Hellwig, G. Sartori, J. M. Gobat & G. Broll, 2017. Vegetation-based bioindication of humus forms in coniferous mountain forests, Journal of Mountain Science, 14(4): 662-673.

- Badia, D., A. Ruiz, A. Girona, C. Marti, J. Casanova, P. Ibarra & R. Zufiaurre, 2016. The influence of elevation on soil properties and forest litter in the siliceous Moncayo Massif, SW Europe, Journal of Mountain Science, 13(12): 2155-2169.

- Bayranvand, M., Y. Kooch & G. Alberti, 2018. Classification of humus forms in Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests ecoregion (Iran): Comparison between two classification methods, Catena, 165:390-397.

- Bayranvand, M., Y. Kooch, S. M. Hosseini & G. Alberti, 2017. Humus forms in relation to altitude and forest type in the Northern mountainous regions of Iran, Forest Ecology and Management, 385:78-86.

- Berg, B., A. Albrektson, M. P. Berg, J. Cortina, M. B. Johansson, A. Gallardo, M. Madeira, J. Pausas, W. Kratz, R. Vallejo & C. McClaugherty, 1999. Amounts of litter fall in some pine forests in a European transect, in particular Scots pine, Annals of Forest Science, 56(8): 629-635.

- Bernier, N., J. F. Ponge & J. Andre, 1993. Comparative study of soil organic mayers in two bilberry-spruce forest stands (Vaccinio-Piceetea): relation to forest dynamics, Geoderma, 59(1-4): 89-108.

- Brêthes, A., J. J. Brun, B. Jabiol, J. F. Ponge & F. Toutain, 1995. Classification of forest humus forms: a French proposal, Annales des Sciences Forestières, 52(6): 535-546.

- Butt, K. R. & C. N. Lowe, 2011. Controlled Cultivation of Endogeic and Anecic Earthworms. In: Karaca, A., (Ed.), Soil Biology: Biology of earthworms. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York, pp. 107-121.

- De Nicola, C., A. Zanella, A. Testi, G. Fanelli & S. Pignatti, 2014. Humus forms in a Mediterranean area (Castelporziano Reserve, Rome, Italy): classification, functioning and organic carbon storage, Geoderma, 235: 90-99.

- Dwyer, L. M. & G. Merriam, 1981. Influence of topographic heterogeneity on deciduous litter decomposition, Oikos, 37(2): 228-237.

- Egli, M., G. Sartori, A. Mirabella, F. Favilli, D. Giaccai & E. Delbos, 2009. Effect of north and south exposure on organic matter in high Alpine soils, Geoderma, 149(1-2): 124-136.

- Eisenhaver, N., A. Stefanski, N. A. Fisichelli, K. Rice, R. Rich & P. B. Reich, 2014. Warming shifts ‘worming’: effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America, Scientific Reports, 4(1): 1-7.

- Graefe, U. & A. Beylich, 2006. Humus forms as tool for upscaling soil biodiversity data to landscape level?, Mitteilungen der Deuteschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft, 108: 6-7.

- Habashi, H., 2015. Microbial respiration and microbial biomass C relationship with soil organic matter in different types of mixed beech forest, Forest Research and development, 1(2): 135-144.

- He, Zh., J. Liu, S. Su, Sh. Zheng, D. Xu, Z. Wu, W. Hong & J. L. Wang, 2015. Effects of Forest Gaps on Soil Properties in Castanopsis kawakamii Nature Forest, Plos One, 10(10): e0141203.

- Hellwig, N., 2018. Spatial patterns of humus forms, soil organisms and soil biological activity at high mountain forest sites in the Italian Alps. PhD thesis. Institute of Geography. Osnabrück University. Osnabrück, Germany, 144 p.

- Hellwig, N., M. Gómez-Brandón, J. Ascher-Jenull, T. Bardelli, K. Anschlag, F. Fornasier, G. Pietramellara, H. Insam & G. Broll, 2018. Humus forms and soil microbiological parameters in a mountain forest: Upscaling to the slope scale, Soil Systems, 2(1):12.

- IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006. World reference base for soil resources 2006- A framework for international classification, correlation and communication. World Soil Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Rome, Italy. Reports number: 103, 128 p.

- Marland, G., R. A. Pielke Sr, M. Apps, R. Avissar, R. A. Betts, K. J. Davis, P. C. Frumhoff, S. T. Jackson, L. A. Joyce, P. Kauppi, J. Katzenberger, K. G. McDicken, R. P. Neilson, J. O. Niles, D. D. S. Niyogi, R. J. Norby, N. Pena, N. Sampson & Y. Xue, 2003. The climatic impacts of land surface change and carbon management, and the implications for climate-change mitigation policy, Climate Policy, 3(2): 149-157.

- Nachtergale, L., K. Chekiere, A. De Schrijver, B. Muys, S. Lussaert & N. Lust, 2002. Earthworm biomass and species diversity in windthrow sites of a temperate lowland forest, Pedobiologia, 46(5): 440-451.

- Pietikainen, J., J. Tikka, S. J. Valkonen, A. Isomaki & H. Frize, 2007. Is the soil microbial community related to the basal area of trees in a Scots pine stand?, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39(7): 1832-1834.

- Podrazsky, V. V. & J. Rames, 2006. Changes in Humus Forms in gaps of the canopy of semi-natural beech stand, Journal of Science, 52(6): 243-248.

- Ponge, J. F., 2003. Humus forms in terrestrial ecosystems: a framework to biodiversity, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 35(7): 935-945.

- Ponge, J. F., B. Jabiol & J. C. Gégout, 2011. Geology and climate conditions affect more humus forms than forest canopies at large scale in temperate forests, Geoderma, 162(1-2): 187-195.

- Ponge, J. F., G. Sartori, A. Garlato, F. Ungaro, A. Zanella, B. Jabiol & S. Obber, 2014. The impact of parent material, climate, soil type and vegetation on Venetian forest humus forms: A direct gradient approach, Geoderma, 226: 290-299.

- Van Calster, H., L. Baeten, A. De Schrijver, L. De Keersmaeker, J. E. Rogister, K. Verheyen & M. Hermy, 2007. Management driven changes (1967-2005) in soil acidity and the understorey plant community following conversion of a coppice-with-standards forest, Forest Ecology and Management, 241(1-3): 258-271.

- Waez-Mousavi, S. M. & H. Habashi, 2014. Humus forms and the most important factors affecting its changes in mixed beech forest (Case Study: Shast Kalate forest of Gorgan), Journal of Wood & Forest Science and Technology, 20(4): 153-166. (In Persian)

- Waez-Mousavi, S. M., 2010. Effects of Gap Size and Shape on Humus Forms, with Regard to Landform Elements, in Shast-kalate Forest. M.Sc. thesis. Faculty of Forest sciences. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Gorgan, Iran, 166 p. (In Persian)

- Waez-Mousavi, S. M., 2017. Humus systems in the Caspian Hyrcanian temperate forests, Applied Soil Ecology, 123: 664-667.

- Zanella, A., B. Jabiol, J. F. Ponge, G. Sartori, R. De Waal, B. Van Delft, U. Graefe, N. Cools, K. Katzensteiner, H. Hager & M. Englisch, 2011. A European morphofunctional classification of humus forms, Geoderma, 164(3-4):138-145.

- Zanella, A., J. F. Ponge, J. Juilleret, N. Bernier, S. Topoliantz & M. Blouin, 2016. Soil aggregates and Humus systems. In: ESSC, European Society for Soil Conservation Conference, Cluje-Napoca, Romania.