اثر آبیاری و سایه بر زی‌توده، سطح برگ و شادابی نهال تادار (Celtis caucasica Willd.)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه جنگلداری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

3 استادیار، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و کویرشناسی، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

4 دکتری جنگلداری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثر تیمارهای مختلف آبیاری و نور بر زی‌توده اندام هوایی و ریشه، سطح برگ و شادابی نهال تادار انجام شده‌ است. ابتدا 30 اصله درخت تادار در جنگل‌های اطراف روستای شوراب استان لرستان انتخاب شدند و از جهت­های مختلف آن بذرگیری شد. سپس در اواخر آبان اقدام به کاشت بذر در گلدان‌ها شد و بذرها در اوایل فروردین سال بعد جوانه زدند و پس از آن گلدان‌ها تا اوایل تیرماه هرروز آبیاری شدند. بعد از آن چهار تیمار آبیاری (هرروز، دو، سه و چهار روز یک‌بار) و سه تیمار سایه (نور کامل، نیم‌سایه و سایة کامل) با سه تکرار و 30 گلدان در هر تکرار (در مجموع 1080 واحد آزمایشی) به­مدت پنج ماه بر روی آنها اعمال شد. سپس طول، عرض و سطح برگ‌ها، زی‌تودة ریشه، زی‌تودة اندام هوایی و شادابی نهال‌ها اندازه‌گیری شد و با استفاده از تجزیه واریانس چند­طرفه و مدل آزمایش اسپلیت، داده‌ها مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که اثرهای متقابل سایه و آبیاری بر زی‌توده، طول و عرض برگ معنی‌دار است (05/0p<). آبیاری در حالت نور کامل اثر معنی‌داری بر شادابی نهال‌ها دارد، اما در نیم‌سایه و سایة کامل این اثر معنی‌داری نیست و همچنین با کاهش نور دریافتی شادابی نهال‌ها کاسته می‌شود. با توجه به نتایج، می‌توان استنباط کرد که رشد و شادابی نهال‌ها در نور کامل مطلوب‌تر از دیگر تیمارهای سایه است و سطوح بالای نور برای رشد گونه تادار اهمیت دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of irrigation and shade on biomass, leaf area and viability of Celtis caucasica Willd. Seedlings

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Asadi 1
  • Vahid Etemad 2
  • Gholamhosein Moradi 3
  • Asghar Sepahvand 4
1 M.Sc. of Forestry, Department of Forestry and Forest Economic, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I. R. Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Forestry and Forest Economic, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I. R. Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, School of Natural Resources & Desert studies, Yazd University, Yazd, I. R. Iran.
4 Ph.D. of Forestry, Department of Forestry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, I. R. Iran.
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to investigate effect of different irrigation and shade treatments on arial and root biomass, leaf area and viability of Caucasian hackberry Seedlings in Shorab nursery, Khoramabad, Lorestan province, Iran. Firstly, 30 Celtis caucasica trees was selected in around of Shorab village forests and then seeds were collected from different directions of trees. Seeds were planted on plots in November and budded in April next year and afterwards plots were irrigated daily until starting treatments. After that, four irrigation treatments (daily, once in every two, three and four days) and three shade treatments (full light, semi and full shade) with three replications and 30 pots per replicate (overally, 1080 expirmental units) were applied on them during five months period. Then, leaf length and width, leaf area, viability, arial and root biomass were measured and analysed in split test model by multi way ANOVA. Results showed interations of irrigation and shade have significant effects on biomass, leaf length and leaf width (p<0.05). Irrigation have significant effect on viability of seedlings in full light, but this effect is not significant in semi shade and full shade. Also, by reducing light, viability of seedlings is decreased. Regarding to results, could be inferred that growth and viability of seedlings are better in full light compared to other treatments which this shows Celtis caucasica is extremlly light demand species and high levels of light are important for its growth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Celtis caucasica
  • Drought stress
  • Light stress
  • Seedlings viability
  • Zagros forests
- Aliyari, F., A. Soltani, M. Zarafshar & A. Sattarian, 2016. The interaction effect of temperature and drought on seed germination of Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis), Journal of Forest Research and Development, 2(2): 179-189. (In Persian)

- Asadi, F., 2012. The effect of different irrigation and shade treatments for producing Seedlings species of celtis caucasica (Case study: Nursery Khorramabad). MSc thesis. Department of forestry. Natural Recourses Faculty. University of Tehran. Karaj, Iran, 85 p. (In Persian)

- Asri, M., M. Tabari, S. K. Alavipanah & R. Mahdavi, 2008. Growth and development of Quercus castaneifolia seedlings at different irrigation treatments, Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 21(1):167-176. (In Persian)

- Castro-Diez, P. & J. Navarro, 2007. Water relations of seedlings of three Quercus species: variations across and within species grown in contrasting light and water regimes, Tree physiology, 27(7): 1011-1018.

- Chabot, B. F. & J. F. Chabot, 1977. Effects of light and temperature on leaf anatomy and photosynthesis in Fragaria vesca, Oecologia, 26(4): 363-377.

- Dadvar, F., T. Rostami Shahraji, M. H. Assare, M. Emam & A. Shirvany, 2013. Effects of different concentrations of plant regulators on In vitro micropropagation of Celtis caucasica Willd., Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research, 21(1): 13-23. (In Persian)

- Daoudi, H., A. Derridj, L. Hannachi & J. P. Mévy, 2018. Comparative drought responses of Quercus suber seedlings of three Algerian provenances under greenhouse conditions, Revued Ecologie, 73(1): 57-70. (In Persian)

- Dehnavi, S., S. H. Matinkhah & F. Nourbakhsh, 2014. The role of Hackberry “Celtis caucasica” as nitrogen-fixing trees on understory’s soil properties in reserved area in Ardasteh-Dehaghan in Isfahan, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 21(4): 643-653. (In Persian)

- Dezhban, A., A. Shirvany, P. Attarod, M. Delshad & M. Matinizadeh, 2015. Cadmium effect on the chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll pigments and proline contents of Celtis caucasica and Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings leaves, Journal of Plant Researches, 28(4): 746-758. (In Persian)

- Espahbodi, F. & M. Tabari, 2004. Determinimg the Most Suitable Shade Rate for Producing Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Seedlings in a Mountain Nursery, Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 57(3): 439-446. (In Persian)

- Fotelli, M. N., K. M. Radoglou & H. I. A. Constantinidou, 2000. Water stress responses of seedlings of four Mediterranean oak species, Tree physiology, 20(16): 1065-1075.

- Gautam, M. K., D. J. Mead, P. W. Clinton & S. X. Chang, 2003. Biomass and morphology of Pinus radiata coarse root components in a sub-humid temperate silvopastoral system, Forest Ecology and Management, 177(1-3): 387-397.

- Ghelichkhani, M. M., M. Tabari, M. Akbarinia & K. Espahbodi, 2005. Influence of light intensity and root pruning on growth, Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 17(1): 2-7. (In Persian)

- Hasanvand, S., V. Etemad, M. Namiranian & P. Attarod, 2011. Effects of irrigation on root length and survival of Quercus macranthera seedlings and comparison of drought resistance among produced seedlings from two seed sources (Case study: Kentia nursery in north of Tehran). Proceedings of National Botanical Garden of Iran Conference. Tehran, Iran, 12 p. (In Persian)

- Hosseini, S. M., M. Akbarinia, S. G. Jalali, M. Tabari, M. R. Elmi & Y. Rasooli, 2005. The effect of different light control treatments on height growth, vitality and survival of seedlings of Cupressus arizonica Green in nurseries, Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 19(3): 25-31. (In Persian)

- Jafaripur, N., S. Alvaninejad, P. Fayyaz & A. Mirshekari, 2017. Leaf and fruit morphological variability of Celtis caucasica in southern Zagros forests, Journal of Wood and Forest Science and Technology, 23(2): 43-64. (In Persian)

- Jahanpour, F. A., M. Fatahi & R. Karamian, 2011. Studying the influence of light on surviving of pistachio saplings in Lorestan province, Iranian Journal of Forest, 3(2): 91-98. (In Persian)

- Jazirehi, M. H., 2002. Afforestation in arid environment. Tehran University Press, Tehran, 458 p. (In Persian)

- Khalili Mahani, M., H. Seyedoleslami & B. Hatami, 2004. Study on Life and Fertility Tables of Elm Leaf Beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller,on Four Different Hosts under Laboratory Conditions, Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 8(3): 209-217. (In Persian)

- Khan, S. R., R. Rose, D. L. Haase & T. E. Sabin, 1996. Soil water stress: Its effects on phenology, physiology, and morphology of containerized Douglas-fir seedlings, New Forests, 12(1): 19-39.

- Khatamsaz, M., 1991. Flora of Iran, No. 4, Ulmaceae. Research Institute of Forests and Langelands Press, Tehran, 25 p. (In Persian)

- Konôpka, B., K. Noguchi, T. Sakata, M. Takahashi & Z. Konôpková, 2007. Effects of simulated drought stress on the fine roots of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) in a plantation forest on the Kanto Plain, eastern Japan, Journal of Forest Research, 12(2): 143-151.

- Lavendar, D. P., 1984. Plant physiology and nursery environment: Interactions affecting seedling growth, in Forest nursery manual: Production of bare root seedlings, Dr. W. Junk Publication, 133-139 p.

- Meteorological Year Books, 1952-2017. Iran Meteorological Organization (IMO). Publication section of I.M.O.

- Mossadegh, A., 2010. Afforestation and forest nursery. University of Tehran Press, Tehran, 546 p. (In Persian)

- Nagakura, J., H. Shigenaga, A. Akama & M. Takahashi, 2004. Growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings in response to soil water content, Tree physiology, 24(11): 1203-1208.

- Pourhashemi, M., S. Eskandari, M. Dehghani, T. Najafi, A. Asadi & P. Panahi, 2012. Biomass and leaf area index of Caucasian Hackberry (Celtis caucasica Willd.) in Taileh urban forest, Sanandaj, Iran, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 19(4): 609-620. (In Persian)

- Rostamikia, Y. & K. Sagheb-Talebi, 2012. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Persian oak (Quercus macranthera) and oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis) on various land forms in Andabil forest, Khalkhal region, Iranian Journal of Forest, 3(4): 341-353. (In Persian)

- Sack, L. & P. J. Grubb, 2002. The combined impacts of deep shade and drought on the growth and biomass allocation of shade-tolerant woody seedlings, Oecologia, 131(2): 175-185.

- Sadeghzadeh Hallaj, M. H., D. Azadfar, H. Mirzaei Nodoushan, M. H. Arzanesh & M. Tohidfar, 2016. Impacts of soil humidity and shade on growth and biomass allocation of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) saplings, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 24(2): 273-283.

- Sattarian, A., 2006. Contribution to the Biosystematics of Celtis L. (Celtidaceae) with Special Emphasis on the African Species. PhD Thesis. Wageningen University. Wageningen, the Netherlands, 142 p.

- Sharfiye, H., 2002. An investigation on quantity and quality characteristics of Sogan forest park (Semnan). MSc thesis. Department of forestry. Natural Recourses Faculty. University of Tehran. Tehran, Iran, 126 p. (In Persian)

- Soofizadeh, N., S. M. Hoseini & M. Tabari, 2009. Effect of sowing date, irrigation and weed control on biomass, ratio of shoot/root length and vitality rate of seedling Cupressus arizonica in nursery, Iranian Journal of Forest, 1(2): 163-173. (In Persian)

- Soofizadeh, N., S. M. Hoseini & M. Tabari, 2010. Survey of growth, survival and germination characteristics of seeds and seedlings of Thuja orientalis in different treatments of sowing date, irrigation and weed control, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 18(3): 458-468. (In Persian)

- Tabari, M., M. R. Pourmajidian & A. R. Alizadeh, 2006. Effect of soil, irrigation and weeding on production of Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens l.) seedling in Shahrposht nursery, Nowshahr, Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 19(1): 65-69. (In Persian)

- Teymourzadeh, A., M. Akbariniya, S. M. Hosseini & M. Tabari, 2004. The effect of shades on survival and growth seedlings of Persian oak (Quercus macranthera F. et. M.), Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 16(61): 12-17. (In Persian)

- Timmer, V. R. & B. D. Miller, 1991. Effects of contrasting fertilization and moisture regimes on biomass, nutrients, and water relations of container grown red pine seedlings, New Forests, 5(4): 335-348.

- van den Driessche, R., W. Rude & L. Martens, 2003. Effect of fertilization and irrigation on growth of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) seedlings over three seasons, Forest Ecology and Management, 186(1-3): 381-389.

- van Hees, A. F. M., 1997. Growth and morphology of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L) seedlings in relation to shading and drought, Annals of Forest Science, 54(1): 9-18.

- Varamesh, S. & M. Tabari, 2010. Establishment and growth of direct- seeding of Quercus castaneifolia affected by light intensity and weed competition, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 18(1): 107-115. (In Persian)

- Wang, J., Z. Sun, D. Hui, L. Yang, F. Wang, N. Liu & H. Ren, 2018. Responses of seedling performance to altered seasonal precipitation in a secondary tropical forest, southern China, Forest Ecology and Management, 410: 27-34.

- Whittemore, A. T., 2005. Genetic Structure, Lack of Introgression and Taxonomic Status in the Celtis laevigata- C. reticulata Complex (Cannabaceae), Journal of Systematic Botany, 30(4): 809-817.

- Zabihi, K., K. Spahbodi & S. R. Mostafanezhad, 2007. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Oak, Nettle tree and Walnut experimental plantations of Chamestan (Mazandaran), Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 15(2): 123-133. (In Persian)