تأثیر بهره‌برداری سنتی بر تنوع و ترکیب گونه‌های چوبی از طریق تجزیه‌وتحلیل تطبیقی قوس‌گیری‌شده در جنگل‌های سردشت (استان آذربایجان غربی)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر بهره­برداری سنتی بر تنوع و ترکیب گونه­های چوبی، دو توده جنگلی دست‌خورده و کمتر­دست‌خورده با شرایط فیزیوگرافیکی و فلوریستیکی مشابه در شهرستان سردشت انتخاب شدند و 30 قطعه‌نمونه دایره­ای شکل 1000 متر­مربعی در یک شبکه ­50×50 متری در دو منطقه پیاده شد و فراوانی و نوع گونه­های چوبی ثبت شدند. میانگین شاخص­های غنای گونه­ای مارگالف، یکنواختی پایلو، تنوع گونه­ای شانون­-وینر و سیمپسون در هر قطعه­نمونه محاسبه و نرمال بودن آنها با آزمون کولموگروف-اسمیرنوف بررسی شد. برای آزمون معنی­دار­بودن اختلاف بین میانگین­ها از آزمون تی غیرجفتی برای داده­های نرمال و آزمون من­ویتنی­یو برای داده‌های غیر­نرمال استفاده شد. برای رج­بندی نمونه­های پوشش گیاهان چوبی از روش آنالیز تطبیقی قوس­گیری­شده استفاده شد. نتایج حاصل از این بررسی نشان داد که بین میانگین شاخص­های غنا و تنوع گونه­ای در دو منطقه به شکل معنی‌داری اختلاف وجود دارد، اما اختلاف بین میانگین شاخص یکنواختی گونه­ای در دو توده معنی­دار نیست. همچنین با توجه به همبستگی بالای محور اول آنالیز تطبیقی قوس­گیری­شده و مشخصه­های تخریبی مانند قطع، سرشاخه­زنی، چرای دام، تعداد جست و نیز با مشخصه­های کمی مانند سطح­ مقطع و تعداد پایه، می­توان به این نتیجه رسید که این مشخصه­ها در تفکیک قطعات نمونه توده­های موردبررسی تأثیرگذار بوده­اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of traditional utilization on woody species composition and diversity through Detrended Correspondence Analyses in the Sardasht Forests (West Azerbaijan Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sahar Mokaram Kashtiban 1
  • Seyed Rostam Mousavi Mirkala 2
  • Javad Eshaghi-Rad 3
1 Ph.D. candidate of Silviculture and Forest ecology, Department of forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, I. R. Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Forestry Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, I. R. Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Forestry Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, I. R. Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of traditional utilization on the diversity and composition of woody species diversity in the western oak forest, two disturbed and less disturbed stands were selected with similar physiographic and floristic conditions. Therefore, 30 circularly shape plots with 1000 m2 surface area were established based on random-systematic sampling with 50×50 m network dimensions. In each sample plot, the frequency and type of woody species were recorded in the prepared sheets of inventory. The average Margalaf species richness indices, Pielo evenness, Shannon-Weiner and Simpson species diversity were calculated in each plot and normalized by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To test the significance of the difference between the mean of indices, t-student test was used for normal data and Mann-Whitney U test for abnormal data. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used for ordination of the woody species samples. The results of the study showed that the means of richness and diversity indices in the disturbed stand were significantly lower than in the less disturbed stand; however, the mean of evenness index did not show any statistically significant differences between two stands. High correlation of first axis of DCA proves the importance of destructive factors, such as cutting, branching, frequency of copping, grazing, and qualitative factors, such as basal area and number of trees. These factors plays an important role in differentiation of the forest stands.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Branching
  • Cutting
  • Disturbed stand
  • Grazing
  • Less disturbed stand
  • Species richness
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