تغییرات ویژگی‌های ریخت‌شناسی برگ درختان راش شرقی (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) در طول گرادیان ارتفاع از سطح دریا (بررسی موردی: جنگل‌های گیلان، ماسال)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکترای جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گیلان، صومعه سرا، ایران

2 استاد، گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گیلان، صومعه سرا، ایران ، ایران

3 استاد، گروه بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران


هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تغییرات ویژگی­های برگ راش شرقی با توجه به تغییرات ارتفاعی بود. سه جمعیت از این گونه به­ترتیب در ارتفاع 700 ، 1200 و 1700 متر از سطح دریا در جنگل‌های ماسال در استان گیلان انتخاب شد. در مرداد ماه تعداد 20 پایه درختی به‌طور تصادفی در سه ارتفاع از سطح دریا انتخاب شد. سپس از هر درخت تعدادی برگ از بخش جنوبی و شمالی تاج درختان سالم و بالغ جمع‌آوری شد. ویژگی‌های ریخت‌شناسی برگ شامل طول برگ، عرض برگ، طول دمبرگ، شاخص برگ، شاخص دمبرگ، فاصله بین پایه تا پهن‌ترین قسمت برگ (BW)، سطح برگ، سطح ویژه برگ، وزن خشک، وزن ویژه برگ و محتوای آب نسبی اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج حاکی از وجود تغییرات در صفات برگ گونه راش با افزایش ارتفاع بود. این تغییرات در برخی از صفات کاهشی (طول برگ، شاخص برگ، وزن ویژه برگ) و در برخی دیگر افزایشی (طول دمبرگ، شاخص دمبرگ، BW، سطح برگ، سطح ویژه برگ، محتوای آب نسبی) بود. نتایج نشان داد که برخی از ویژگی‌های ریخت‌شناسی و مورفوفیزیولوژیکی اندازه‌گیری­ شده در جمعیت‌های مختلف، دارای اختلاف معنی‌داری در سطح احتمال پنج درصد بودند. نتایج حاکی از وجود تغییرات در صفات برگ گونه راش شرقی با افزایش ارتفاع است.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Changes in leaf morphological characteristics of Fagus orientalis Lipesky along altitudinal gradients (Case study: Gilan forests, Masal)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahboobe Mohebbi Bijarpas 1
  • Teymour Rostami shahraji 2
  • Habiboala samizadeh 3
1 PhD Student of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Someh Sara, I. R. Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Someh Sara, I. R. Iran
3 Professor, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Biotechnology, University of Guilan, Rasht, I. R. Iran
چکیده [English]

Plant functional traits reflect their responsiveness and adaptability to environmental changes. Leaf traits influence the adaptation of plants to environmental changes and determine the community structure and function of ecosystem. The objective of the present study was to determine the oriental beech leaf traitschanges regarding to elevation gradients. Thus, three populations of this species were selected at 700 m a.s.l, 1200 m a.s.l and 1700 m a.s.l in Masal forests in Guilan province, respectively. In each altitude, in August, 20 tree stands were selected randomly. Then, from each tree stand, number of leaves were collected from southern and northern parts of the crown of healthy and mature trees. Then, some morphological characteristics (leaf length, leaf width, petiole length, leaf index, petiole index, leaf area distance to the widest leaf area) and morphophysiological characteristics (leaf area, specific leaf area, dry weight, specific dry weight and relative water content) were measured. The results indicate changes in the traits of beech leaves with increasing altitude. This process was shown decreasing in some of traits (leaf length, leaf index, and specific dry weight) and in others increasing (petiole length, petiole index, BW, leaf area, Specific leaf area, and relative water content). The results showed that some morphological and morphophysiological characteristics measured in different populations have a significant difference in the level of 0.05%. The results show that with increasing elevation, the leave traits of Fagus orientalis were changed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adaptation
  • Climate change
  • Leaf morphology
  • Morphophysiological characteristics
- Ahmadi, M. T., P. Attarod, M. R. MarviMohadjer, R. Rahmani & J. Fathi, 2009. Partitioning rainfall into throughfall, stemfow, and interception loss in an oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forest during the growing season, Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 33(6): 557-568.

- Bao, L. & Y. H. Liu, 2009. Comparison of leaf functional traits in different forest communities in Mt. Dongling of Beijing, Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29: 3692-3703.

- Bayramzadeh, V., 2011. Stomatal characteristics of Fagus orientalis Lipsky in geographically separated locations in the Caspian Forests of Northern Iran, Research journal of Environmental Sciences, 5(11): 836-840. 

- Bayramzadeh, V., P. Atarod & GH. Vafaei, 2012. Effect of Geographical Variation on the Morphological and Anatomical Characteristics of Beech Leaf (Fagus orientalisLipsky) in Guilan province, Journal of Sciences and Techniques in Natural Resources, 7(1):1-12. (In Persian)

- Bonito, A., L. Gratani & L. Varone, 2011. Relationships between acorn size and seedling morphological and physiological traits of Quercus ilex L. from different climates, Photosynthetica, 49(1): 75-86.

- Bresson, C. C., Y. Vitasse, A. Kremer & S. Delzon, 2011. To what extent is altitudinal variation of functional traits driven by genetic adaptation in European oak and beech?, Tree Physiology, 31(11): 1164-1174.

- Bruschi, P., P. Grossoni & F. Bussotti, 2003. Within- and among-tree variation in leaf morphology of Quercuspetraea (Matt.) Liebl. Natural Populations, Trees, 17(2): 164-172.

- Chapolagh Paridari, I., S. A. Jalali, A. Sonboli, M. Zarafshar & P. Bruschi, 2013. Leaf macro- and micro-morphological altitudinal variability of Carpinusbetulus in the Hyrcanian forest (Iran), Journal of Forestry Research, 24(2): 301-307. (In Persian)

- Delagrange, S., 2011. Light- and seasonal-induced plasticity in leaf morphology, N partitioning and photosynthetic capacity of two temperate deciduous species, Environmental and Experimental Botany, 70(1): 1-10.

- Ghorbanli, M., F. Savadkoohi & A. Satarian, 2014. Exploring the effect of habitat altitude on leaf morphology of Iranian hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.) in ShastKalateh forests in Gorgan, Plant and Ecosystem, 9(37): 3-15. (In Persian)

- Gratani, L., R. Catoni, G. Pirone, A. R. Frattaroli & L. Varone, 2012. Physiological and morphological leaf trait variations in two Apennine plant species in response to different altitudes, Photosynthetica, 50(1): 15-23.

- Hatziskakisi, S., I. Tsiripidis & A. C. Papageogioui, 2011. Leaf morphological variation in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)  Populations in Greece and its relation to their post-glacial origin, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 165(4): 422-436.

- Hoch, G., M. Popp & C. Körner, 2002. Altitudinal increase of mobile carbon pools in Pinuscembra suggests sink limitation of growth at the Swiss tree line, Oikos, 98(3): 361-374.

- Hong T., C. Z. Wu & C. Chen, 2013. Elevational resource niche of SLA of 5 dominant trees in Fujian coastal hilly region, Fujian Coll. For. Sin, 33: 8-11.

- Hopkins, R., J. Schmitt & J. R. Stinchcombe, 2008. A latitudinal cline and response to vernalization in leaf angle and morphology in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae), New Phytologist, 179(1): 155-164.

- Li, C., S. Liu & F. Berninger, 2004. Picea seedlings show apparent acclimation to drought with increasing altitude in the eastern Himalaya, Trees, 18(3): 277-283.

- Li, M. H., J. Yang & N. Kräuchi, 2003. Growth responses of Piceaabies and Larix decidua to elevation in the subalpine areas as of Tyrol Austria, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33(4): 653-662.

- Li, M. H., N. Kräuchi & M. Dobbertin, 2006. Biomass distribution of different-aged needles in young and old Pinuscembra trees at highland and lowland sites, Trees, 20(5): 611-618.

- Lindner, M., M. Maroschek, S. Netherer, A. Kremer, A. Barbati, J. Garcia-Gonzalo, R. Seidl, S. Delzon, P. Corona & M. Kolström, 2009. Climate change impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of European forest eco- systems, Forest Ecology and Management, 259(4): 698-709.

- Nasseri Karimvand, S., L. Poursartip, M. Moradi & J. Soosani, 2016.  Dynamic Effects of climate variables (temperature and precipitation) on the annual diameter growth of Iranian oak (Quercus brantti Lindl), Forest Research and Development, 2(1): 63-71. (In Persian).

- Poorter, H., Ü. Niinemets, L. Poorter, I. J. Wright & R. Villar, 2009. Causes and consequences of variation in leaf mass per area (LMA): a meta-analysis, New Phytol, 182(3): 565-588.

- Pyakurel, A. & J. R. Wang, 2014. Leaf Morphological and Stomatal Variations in Paper Birch Populations along Environmental Gradients in Canada, American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5(11): 1508-1520.

- Qiang, W., X. L. Wang, T. Chen, H. Y. Feng, L. S. An, Y. Q.  He & G. Wang, 2003. Variation in stomatal density and carbon isotope values in Picea crassifolia at different altitudes in Qilian Mountains, Trees, 17(3): 258-262.

- Rajsnerová, P., K.  Klem, P.  Holub, K. Novotná, V. Vecerová, M. Kozáciková, A.  Rivas-Ubach, J. Sardans, M. V. Marek, J. Peñuelas & O. Urban, 2015. Morphological, biochemical and physiological traits of upper and lower canopy leaves of European beech tend to converge with increasing altitude, Tree Physiology, 35(1): 47-60.

- Royer, D. L., L. A. Meyerson, K. M. Robertson & J. M. Adams, 2009. Phenotypic Plasticity of Leaf Shape along a Temperature Gradient in Acer rubrum, PLos one, 4(10): 7653.

- Stojnić, S., S. Orlović1, D. Miljković & G. Von Wuehlisch, 2016. Intra and inter provenance variations in leaf morphometric traits in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Archives of Biological Sciences, 68(4): 781-788.

- Tsiripidis, I. & N. Athanasiadis, 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of the vascular flora of NE Greece:  floristic composition of the beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Greek Rodopi, Willdenowia, 33(2): 273-298.

- Villar-Salvador, P., R. Planelles, J. Oliet, J. L. Peñuelas-Rubira, D. F. Jacobs & M. González,  2004. Drought tolerant and transplanting performance of holm oak (Quercus ilex) seedling after drought hardening in the nursery, Journal Tree Physiology, 24(10): 1147-1155.

- Vitasse, Y., C. C. Bresson, A. Kremer, R. Michalet & S. Delzon, 2010. Quantifying phenological plasticity to temperature in two temperate tree species, Functional Ecology, 24(6): 1211-1218.

- Wright, I. J., P. B. Reich, M. Westoby, D. D. Ackerly, Z. Baruch, F. Bongers, J. Cavender-Bares, T. Chapin, J. H. C. Cornelissen & M. Diemer, 2004. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum, Nature, 428(6985): 821-827.

- Yosefzadeh, H., M. Tabari, A. Hosseinzadeh Colagar, M. Assadi, A. Sattarian & H. Zare, 2010. Variation in Leaf Morphology of Tilia spp. of in Hyrcanian forests, Taxonomy and Biosystematics, 2(2): 11-24. (In Persian).

- Zarafshar, M., M. Akbarinia, P. Bruschi, S. M. Hosseiny, H. Yousefzadeh, M. Taieby & A. Sattarian, 2010.   Phenotypic variation in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) natural populations in Hyrcanian forest (north of Iran), revealed by leaf morphometrics, Folia Oecologica, 37(1): 105-113.

- Zhang, H. W., J. Y. Ma, W. Sun & F. H. Chen, 2010. Altitudinal variation in functional traits of Picea schrenkiana var. tianschanica and their relationship to soil factors in Tian-shan Mountains, Northwest China, Acta Ecologica Sinica, 30: 5747-5758.

- Zhong, M., J. Wang, K. Liu, R. Wu, Y. Liu, X. Wei, D. Pan & X. Shao, 2014. Leaf morphological shift of three dominant species along altitudinal gradient in an Alpine Meadow of the Qinghai- Tibetan plateau, Polish Journal of Ecology, 62(4): 639-648.

- Zolfaghari, R., Kh. Karimi Haji Pomagh & P. Fayyaz, 2013. Evaluation of genetic variability of some morpho-physiological traits in brant’s oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.), Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research, 21(1): 103-117. (In Persian).

- Zong, J. W., T. T. Zhao, Q. H. Ma, L. S. Liang & G. X. Wang, 2015. Assessment of GeneticDiversity and Population Genetic Structure of Corylus mandshurica in China Using SSR Markers, PloS One, 10(9): e0137528.