نحوه زادآوری و استقرار نسل جوان در راشستان‌های دست‌نخورده جنگل‌های هیرکانی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، بخش تحقیقات جنگل، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات جنگل، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 کارشناس پژوهش ، بخش تحقیقات جنگل، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گیلان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

5 کارشناس پژوهش ، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گیلان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

6 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری، ایران.

7 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری، ایران

8 مربی پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران

9 کارشناس پژوهش ، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان ، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران

10 کارشناس ارشد جنگل، دفتر فنی جنگلداری، سازمان جنگلها، مراتع و آبخیزداری کشور، چالوس، ایران.

11 کارشناس ارشد جنگل، اداره منابع طبیعی ساری، سازمان جنگلها، مراتع و آبخیزداری کشور، ساری، ایران

12 کارشناس ارشد جنگل، دفتر جنگلکاری و پارکها، سازمان جنگلها، مراتع و آبخیزداری کشور، چالوس، ایران

چکیده

استقرار نسل جوان در توده به‌ویژه روند زادآوری طبیعی توده‌های ناهمسال در دیدگاه جنگل‌شناسی نزدیک به طبیعت یکی از نکات مهم در حفظ پایداری جنگل است. این پژوهش در قطعات شاهد چهار منطقه از راشستان‌های هیرکانی انجام شد. 12 قطعه نمونه یک هکتاری در سه مرحله تحولی و سه اندازه مختلف روشنه، هرکدام با پنج قطعه نمونه چهار مترمربعی انتخاب و مشخصه‌های کمی و کیفی نهال‌ها و شدت نورنسبی (RLI) و شاخص سطح برگ (LAI) بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که توده‌ها در مراحل اولیه و بلوغ خالص و در مرحله تخریب آمیخته بودند. RLI در مرحله بلوغ و روشنه کوچک کمترین و در مرحله تخریب و روشنه بزرگ بیشترین مقدار را داشت ولی LAI در مرحله بلوغ و روشنه کوچک بیشتر بود. بیشترین متوسط رویش ارتفاعی کلیه نهال‌ها در مرحله اولیه و روشنه کوچک، بیشترین طول بالاترین میان‌گره و طول نوشاخه در مرحله بلوغ و روشنه بزرگ و بیشترین عرض تاج نهال در مرحله اولیه و روشنه کوچک دیده شد. سهم نهال‌های خوش­فرم در مرحله تخریب و روشنه متوسط بیشتر و سهم نهال‌های دو و چند شاخه در روشنه بزرگ بیشتر بود. روشنه‌های متوسط محیط مناسب‌تری را برای نهال‌ها فراهم می‌کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Regeneration and establishment of natural young generation in intact oriental beech stands of Hyrcanian forests

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khosro Sagheb Talebi 1
  • Pejman Parjizkar 2
  • Majid Hassani 3
  • Beitollah Amanzadeh 4
  • Arsalan Hemmati 5
  • Baba Khanjani Shiraz 5
  • Mohammad Amini 6
  • Shirzad Mohammadnezhad Kiasari 7
  • Seyed Zeidollah Mirkazemi 8
  • Asad allah karimidoost 9
  • Karim Maghsudloo 9
  • Mohammad Mortazavi 10
  • Bahram Delfan Abazari 11
  • Mousa Karandeh 12
1 Professor,, Forest Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands (RIFR), Agricultural Research, education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Assist. Prof. Forest Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands (RIFR), Agricultural Research, education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
3 Research Expert, Forest Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands (RIFR), Agricultural Research, education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
4 Assist. Prof., Research Division of Natural Resources, Gilan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
5 Research Expert, Research Division of Natural Resources, Gilan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
6 Assist. Prof., Research Division of Natural Resources, Mazandaran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (AREEO), Sari, Iran
7 Assist. Prof., Research Division of Natural Resources, Mazandaran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (AREEO), Sari, Iran
8 Senior Research Expert, Research Division of Natural Resources, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (AREEO), Gorgan, Iran
9 Research Expert, Research Division of Natural Resources, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (AREEO), Gorgan, Iran
10 Senior Forest Expert, Forest Management Office, Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Organization (FRWO), Chalus, Iran
11 Senior Forest Expert, General Office of Natural Resources, Sari, Iran
12 Senior Forest Expert, Afforestation and Forest Parks Office, Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Organization (FRWO), Chalus, Iran
چکیده [English]

Process of natural regeneration in uneven-aged stands is one of basic issues for sustainability in close to nature silviculture approach. The present research started form 2009 in four intact oriental beech stands of the Hyrcanian forests. Twelve, one ha sample plots have been established in three development stages containing five micro sample plots of 4 m2. Three gap sizes (small, medium and large) with five micro sample plots of 4 m2 have been selected within the development stages and characteristics of saplings have been studied. Relative light intensity (RLI) and leaf area index (LAI) have been studied as well. Results showed that the stands in the initial and optimal stages were pure, while decay stage was mixed. The least RLI was observed in the optimal stage and small sized gap while the highest amount of RLI was in the decay stage and large gap. The lowest amount of LAI was calculated in the optimal stage and small gap size. The maximum mean height increment was measured in the initial stage and small gap, maximum length of uppermost internode and annual shoot in optimal stage and large gap and the widest crown width was calculated in the initial stage and small gap. The proportion of saplings with favored quality was highest in the optimal stage and medium gap size while the highest proportion of twig and broom shaped saplings was observed in the large gaps. Overall, small and large gaps can negatively affect the saplings, whereas medium sized gap creates better condition for saplings.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Regeneration
  • Saplings characteristics
  • Oriental beech
  • Gap
  • Development stage
- Amanzadeh, B., Kh. Sagheb-Talebi, P. Pahrizkar, P. Shahinrokhsar Ahmadi, A. Moradi, H. Pourbabaei & M. Yousefpour, 2019. Comparison of regeneration and diversity of herbaceous species in created and natural gaps, Journal of Forest Research and Development, 5(1): 153-167. (In Persian)

- Anderson, 1964. Studies of the woodland light climate, Journal of ecology, 52(3): 27-41.

- Anonymous, 1998a. Forest Management plan, District one, Langa, Water catchment 36 (Kazemrood). Noshahr Natural Resources Office, Forest and Range Organization, 450p. (In Persian)

- Anonymous, 1998b. Forest Management plan, District four, Haftkhal. Sari Natural Resources Office, Forest and Range Organization, 98p. (In Persian)

- Anonymous, 1999. Forest Management Plan, District two, Shastkola. Gorgan Natural Resources Office, Forest and Range Organization, 343p. (In Persian)

- Anonymous, 2006. Forest Management plan, District nine, Shafarood, Rasht Natural Resources Office, Forest and Range Organization, 289p. (In Persian)

- Arias, D., 2007. Calibration of LAI-2000 to estimate leaf area index and assessment of its relationship with stand productivity in six native and introduced tree species in Costa Rica, Forest Ecology and Management, 247(1-3): 185-193.

- Barnes, B. V., D. R. Zak, S. R. Denton & S. H. Spurr, 1998. Forest Ecology. 4th ed. John Wiley and Sons press, 774p.

- Brändli, U. & J. Dowhanytsch, 2003. Urwälder im Zentrum Europas. WSL, Haupt Verlag, Bern, 192p.

- Delfan Abazri, B., Kh. Sagheb-Talebi & M. Namiranian, 2004a. Investigation on regeneration gaps and quantitative characteristics of regeneration in reserve compartment of Kelardasht forests, Langa, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 12(2): 251-266. (In Persian)

- Delfan Abazri, B., Kh. Sagheb-Talebi & M. Namiranian, 2004b. Investigation on development stages in reserve compartment of Kelardasht forests, Langa, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 12(3): 307-326. (In Persian)

- Diaci, J., 2006. Adapting silvicultural strategies to natural disturbances regime: problems, experiences and successful practices from central Europe. Abstracts of the conference on Natural disturbance-based Silviculture: Managing for complexity, Quebec, Canada: p60.

- Drössler, L. & B. von Lüpke, 2005. Canopy gaps in virgin beech forests in Havesova Reserve. In: Commarmot, B. & F. D. Hamor (Eds.), Natural forests in the temperate zone of Europe-values and utilization. WSL, Proceedings Mukachevo, Ukraine, pp. 93-99.

- Eslami, A., 2000. Investigation on structure of pure and mixed Beech stands in Neka-Zalemrood forests. M.Sc. thesis. Science and research Campus. Azad University, 94p. (In Persian)

- Evans, G. C. & D. E. Coombe, 1959. Hemispherical and woodland canopy photography and the light climate, Journal of ecology, 47(1): 103-113.

- Fallah, A., 2000. Investigation on structure of natural beech stands in Mazandaran and Gilan provinces. Ph.D. thesis. Faculty of Natural Resources. University of Tehran. Karaj, Iran, 202p. (In Persian)

- Frazer, G. W., C. D. Canham & K. P. Lertzman, 1999. Gap Light Analyzer (GLA), Version 2.0: Imaging software to extract canopy structure and gap light transmission indices from true-color fisheye photographs, user’s manual and program documentation. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, and the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York. 36p.

- Ghurchibeigi, K., 2002. Investigation on relationship of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of beech seedlings with gap size in Ramsar forests. PhD thesis, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, 214 p. (In Persian)

- Jin-He, Z., Z. Jie & L. I. U. Ze-Hua, 2011. Progresses of terrestrial carbon cycle studies, Progress in Geography, 19(4): 297-306

- Korpel, S., 1995. Die Urwälder der Westkarpaten. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 310p.

- Leibundgut, H., 1993. Europäische Urwälder. Haupt Verlag, Bern, 260p.

- Marvie Mohajer, M. R., 2011. Silviculture. University of Tehran, 4th edition, Tehran, 418p. (In Persian)

- Mohammad-Salehi, S., 2010. Density and competition index of beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) saplings in different regeneration gap size (Case study: Kheyrod forest). M.Sc. thesis, Faculty of natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Tehran, 92p.

- Mousavi Mirkalai, A., Kh. Sagheb-Talebi, M. Tabari & M. R. Pourmajidian, 2003. Determination of appropriate canopy gap surface for improvement of beech regeneration, Iranian Journal of natural Resources, 56(1&2): 39-46. (In Persian)

- Nyland, R. D., 2002. Silviculture Concepts and Applications. 2nd ed. Long grove Waveland Press, 633p.

- Otto, H. J., 1994. Waldkologie. UTB Verlag, Stuttgart, 391p.

- Parhizkar, P., Kh. Sagheb-Talebi, A. Mattaji, M. Namiranian, M. Hasani & M. Mortazavi, 2011a. Tree and regeneration conditions within development stages in Kelardasht beech forest (Case study: reserve area-Langa), Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 19(1): 141-153. (In Persian)

- Parhizkar, P., Kh. Sagheb-Talebi, A. Mattaji, R. Nyland & M. Namiranian, 2011b. Silvicultural characteristics of Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) regeneration under different RLI and positions within gaps, Forestry, 84(2): 177-185.

- Parhizkar, P., Y. Shahini, M. H. Sadeghzadeh Hallaj & A. Yaghoubian, 2017. Effects of position within gap and relative light intensity on quantitative regeneration attributes of six tree species (Case study: Loveh forest- Golestan province), Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 24(4): 568-576.

- Parviainen, J., A. Schuck & W. Bücking, 1994. Forestry research on structure, succession and biodiversity of undisturbed and semi-natural forests and woodlands in Europe. In: Paulenka, J. & L. Paule (Eds.), Conservation of Forests in Central Europe, Zvolen, Slowakia, pp 23-30.

- Saeb, K., M. Noori Shirazi, A. Kialashaki & R. Jafari Hajati, 2012 Effect of light on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of hornbeam seedlings (Case study: Korkrood forest, Mazandaran), Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 19(4): 478-490. (In Persian)

- Sagheb-Talebi, K., B. Delfan Abazari & M. Namiranian, 2005. Regeneration process in natural uneven-aged Caspian beech forests of Iran, Swiss Forestry Journal, 156(12): 477-480.

- Sagheb-Talebi, Kh., P. Parhizkar, M. Hassani, B. Amanzadeh, A. Hemmati, B. Khanjani-Shiraz, M. Amini, Sh. Mohammadnejad Kiasari, S.Z. Mirkazemi, A. Karimidoost, M.K. Maghsoudlou, M. Mortazavi, M. Karandeh, B. Delfan Abazari, D. Moghadasi, D. Dastangoo, V. Mashayekh & A. Sayadi Marzdashti, 2020. Preliminary results of survey on stand structure in permanent research plots of Hyrcanian intact beech forests. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 28(2): 163-179. (In Persian)

- Sagheb-Talebi, Kh. & J. P. Schütz, 2000. The structure of natural oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) in the Caspian region of Iran and potential for the application of the group selection system, Forestry, 75(4): 465-472.

- Sagheb-Talebi, Kh., 1995. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of beech saplings (Fagus sylvatica L.) growing under various site conditions with emphasis on light. PhD thesis. ETH-Zurich, Switzerland. 219p.

- Sagheb-Talebi, Kh., 2008. Appropriate characteristics of beech stands for application of Close to Nature Silviculture (selection system). Annual report of National Project No. 04-09-09-87033. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, 21p. (In Persian)

- Sagheb-Talebi, Kh., A. Eslami, K. Ghurchibeigi, H. Shahnavazi & A. Mousavi Mirkalai, 2001. Structure of Hyrcanian beech stands for application of selection system. Proceedings of 2nd International Meeting of Forest and Industry, pp. 107-138. (In Persian)

- Sagheb-Talebi, Kh., J. Jashni, Sh. Mohammadnejad Kiasari, H. Mohammadi Nasrabadi & M. Paydar, 2012. Light regime in natural and planted stands of the Caspian Forests, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 20(1): 165-181. (In Persian)

- Schütz, J. P., 1993. Sylviculture 1, Principes d’éducation des forests. Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes, Suisse, 243p.

- Schütz, J. P., 2004. Opportunistic methods of controlling vegetation, inspired by natural plant succession dynamics with special reference to natural out mixing tendencies in a gap regeneration, Annals of Forest Science, 61(2): 149-156.

- Sefidi, K., M. R. Mohadjer, M. Zobeiri & V. Etemad, 2007. Investigation on dead trees effects on natural regeneration of oriental beech and hornbeam in a mixed beech forest, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 15(4): 365-373. (In Persian)

- Sefidi, K., M. R. Mohadker, R. Mosandl & C. A. Copenheaver, 2011. Canopy gaps and regeneration in old-growth oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) syand, northern Iran, Forest Ecology and Management, 262(6): 1094-1099.

- Shahnavazi, H., Kh. Sagheb-Talebi & Gh. Zahedi Amiri, 2005. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of natural regeneration in gaps of beech stands in Golband forest (District Jamand), Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 13(2): 141-154. (In Persian)

- Wang, P., 2007. Measurements and simulation of forest leaf area index and net primary productivity in Northern China, Journal of Environmental Management, 85(3): 607-615.

- Wright, J. W., 2012. Introduction to Forest Genetics. Academic press, 480p.

- Zolfeghari, E., M. R. Marvi Mohajer & M. Namiranian, 2007. Impact of dead trees on natural regeneration in forest stands (Chelir district, Kheiroudkenar, Nowshahr), Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 15(3): 234-240. (In Persian)