امکان‌سنجی پایش زیستی فلزات سنگین توسط گونه‌های چوبی مناطق شهری

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه محیط‌زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

3 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش به بررسی توان زیست­پالایی گونه­­های درختی چنار، زبان­گنجشک و کاج در خصوص فلزات کادمیوم، نیکل، سرب در پارک­های شهر همدان می­پردازد. پس از نمونه­برداری مرکب از برگ شسته­نشده گونه­های مورد بررسی و خاک در 11 پارک و بوستان مورد پژوهش، نمونه­ها ابتدا خشک و سپس هضم اسیدی شده و در آخر غلظت فلزات توسط دستگاه جذب اتمی اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج غلظت فلزات سرب و نیکل بیش از مقادیر موجود در پوسته زمین و غلظت فلزات کادمیوم و نیکل بیشتر از میانگین جهانی غلظت فلزات در خاک شهرها به­دست آمد. از سوی دیگر بیشترین مقدار غلظت فلزات کادمیوم، سرب و روی به­ترتیب در برگ چنار و عنصر نیکل در برگ زبان­گنجشک بود. در حالت کلی غلظت فلزات در برگ­های نشسته بیشتر از برگ­های شسته­شده ارزیابی شد. در این راستا همبستگی مثبت و معنی­داری بین مقدار فلزات در خاک محل رویش درختان با غلظت آن­ها در برگ وجود داشت. با توجه به نتایج فاکتور تغلیظ زیستی می­توان گفت گونه چنار شاخص زیستی مناسب­تری برای زیست­ردیابی آلودگی فلزات سنگین به­خصوص کادمیوم است. در نهایت با توجه به نتایج حاصل لزوم توجه به استقرار گونه­های انباشت­گر در بوستان­های شهری مطرح شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The feasibility of biomonitoring of heavy metals by wooden species of urban areas

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samar Mortazavi 1
  • Farhad Ghasemi Aghbash 2
  • Reza Naderi Motiy 3
1 Assistant Professor, Environmental Science Department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Malayer University, Malayer, I. R. Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Rangeland and Watershed Department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Malayer University, Malayer, I. R. Iran
3 M.Sc. of Forestry, Rangeland and Watershed Department, Malayer University, Malayer, I. R. Iran
چکیده [English]

The present study aims to investigate the potential of biodegradation of cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc metals by Plane, Ash and Pine wood species in Hamedan parks. After composed sampling of the unwashed leaves and soil in the 11 parks, the samples were dried, acidified, and finally, the concentration of metals were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results of concentration of lead and nickel metals were higher than those in the earth's crust and the concentration of cadmium and nickel metals more than the global mean concentration of metals in urban soils. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of cadmium, lead and zinc were found in Plane leaf and nickel element in Ash leaf. In general, the concentration of metals from unwashed leaves were more than washed ones. In this regard, there was a positive and significant correlation between the amounts of metals in the soil at the site of tree growth with their concentration in leaves. According to the results of bioconcentration factors, it can be said that the Plane species is more suitable for biodegradation of heavy metal contamination, especially cadmium. Finally, due to the results, it is necessary to pay attention to the establishment of cumulative species in urban gardens.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ash
  • Heavy metals
  • Monitoring
  • Pine
  • Plane
- Abdu Salam, M, E. Kaipiainen, M. Mohsin, A. Villa, S. Kuittinen, P. Pulkkinen, P. Pelkonen, L. Mehtätalo & A. Pappinen, 2016. Effects of contaminated soil on the growth performance of young Salix (Salix schwerinii E. L. Wolf) and the potential for phytoremediation of heavy metals, Journal of Environmental Management, 183: 467-477.

- Afanasieva, L. V., V. K. Kashin, T. A. Mikhailova & N. S. Berezhnaya, 2007. Effect of the industry-related air pollution on the accumulation of heavy metals in the pine needles in the Basin of the Selenga, River, Chemistry for Sustainable Development, 15: 25-31.

- Ali. H., E. Khan & M. A. Sajad, 2013. Phytoremediation of heavy metals concepts and applications, Chemosphere, 91(7): 869-881.

- Amini, M. & A. Forghani, 2015. Soil Surface and leave Plantain (Platanus Orientalis) contamination to Pb and Cd mapping in Rasht City, Journal of Water and Soil Science, 19(71): 119-128. (In Persian)

- Antoniadis, V. & B. J. Alloway, 2001. Availability of Cd, Ni and Zn to rye grass in sewage sludge treated soils at different temperatures, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 132(3-4): 201-214.

- Askari, M., M. Noori, F. Beigi & F. Amini, 2012. Evaluation of the phytoremediation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. in petroleum- contaminated soils with emphasis on the some heavy metals, Journal of Tissue and Cell, 2(4): 442-437. (In Persian)

- Baycu, G., D. Tolunay, H. Ozden & S. Gunebakan, 2006. Ecophysiological and seasonal variations in Cd, Pb, Zn, and Ni concentrations in the leaves of urban deciduous trees in Istanbul, Environmental Pollution, 143(3): 545-554.

- Bowen, H. J. M., 1979. Environmental chemistry of the elements. Academic Press, London, England, 333 p.

- Burken, J. G., D. A. Vroblesky & J. C. Balouet, 2011. Phytoforensics, dendrochemistry and phytoscreening: new green tools for delineating contaminants from past and present, Environmental Science & Technology, 45(15): 6218-6226.

- Celik, A., A. A. Aslihan, A. Akdoğan & Y. Kaska. 2005. Determining the heavy metal pollution in Denizli (Turkey) by using Robinia pseudo acacia L, Environmental Science & Technology, 31(1): 105-112.

- Chen, J., F. Wei, C. Zheng, Y. Wu & D. C. Adriano, 1991. Background concentrations of elements in soils of China, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 57(1): 699-712.

- Chen, T. B., Y. M. Zheng, M. Lei, Z. C. Huang, H. T. Wu, H. Chen, K. K. Fan, K. Yu, X. Wu & Q. Z. Tian, 2005. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils of urban parks in Beijing, China, Chemosphere, 60(4): 542-551.

- Darivasi, S., K. Saeb & M. Mollashahi, 2016. Effects of Distance from Pollutant Sources on Heavy Metal Concentrations around Neka cement Factory Soil, Journal Environmental Science. Technology, 17(4): 33-44. (In Persian)

- Davy, A., M. Opium & H. Shariatmadari, 2002. Cumulative and residual effects of compost manure on the chemical forms of heavy metals in a calcareous soil, Summary of Articles of the Eighth Iranian Soil Science Congress, Rasht, pp. 595-593. (In Persian)

- Dimitrijević, M. D., M. M. Nujkić, S. Č. Alagić, S. M. Milić & S. B. Tošić, 2016. Heavy metal contamination of topsoil and parts of peach-tree growing at different distances from a smelting complex, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 13(2): 615-630.

- Ejidike, I. P. & P. C. Onianwa, 2015. Assessment of Trace Metals Concentration in Tree Barks as Indicator of Atmospheric Pollution within Ibadan City, South-West, Nigeria, Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, 2015(2015): 1-8.

- Elik, A., 2003. Heavy metal accumulation in street dust samples in Sivas, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 34(1-2): 145-156.

- Fang, S. B., H. Hu, W. C. Sun & J. J. Pan, 2011. Spatial variations of heavy metals in the soils of vegetable-growing land along urban-rural gradient of Nanjing, China, International Journal Environment Research Public Health, 8(6): 1805-1816.

- Gee, G. W. & J. W. Bauder, 1986. Particle-size analysis. In: Klute, A., (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. CRC, Madison, pp. 383-411

- Ghori, Z., H. Iftikhar, M. F. Bhatti, M. Nasar, I. Sharma, A. G. Kazi & P. Ahmad, 2016. Phytoextraction: the use of plants to remove heavy metals from soil, In: Plant Metal Interaction, Elsevier Press, pp. 385-409.

- Gosh, M. & S. P. Singh, 2005. A review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and utilization of its hypoducts, Applied ecology and environmental research, 6(4): 1-18.

- Haj Rasooli, A., H. Amini, H. Hoodaji & P. Najafi, 2007. Biomonitoring of air and soil pollution in Isfahan region, Journal of Research in Agricultural Science, 2(2): 39- 47. (In Persian)

- Hashemi Beni, O., M. H. Salehi & H. Beigi Harchegani, 2010. Estimation of soil organic matter by loss-on-ignition procedure in four major pcains of Chaharmahal-va-Bakhtiari province, Journal of Water and Soil Science, 13(50): 77-89. (In Persian)

- Hashemi, S. A., M. Zargham & A. H. Firouzan, 2016. Absorption in two- year old Poplar seedlings (Populus deltoids) in the environment, Journal of Health in the Field, 4(1): 25-31. (In Persian)

- Heiri, O., A. F. Lotter & G. Lemcke, 2001. Loss -on - ignition as a method for estimating organic and carbonate content in sediments: reproducibility and comparability of results,Journal of Paleolimnology, 25(1): 101-110.

- Kabata-Pendias, A. & H. Pendias, 1992. Trace elements in soils and plants. 2nd edition. CRC Press, Florida Boca Raton, 403 p.

- Khademi, A. & B. Kurd, 2010. The role of broad-leaved tree species (Sycamore and Asparagus) in reducing lead-contamination, Journal of Natural Resources Sciences and Technology, 5(1): 1-12. (In Persian)

- Ma, L.Q., K. M. Kumar, C. Tu, W. Zhang, Y. Cai & E. D. Kennelley, 2001. A fern that hyper accumulates arsenic, Nature, 409(6820): 579.

- Majidi, T., M. Taheri, F. Aqajanlou, A. Mousavi, M. Shojaei, M. Tokasi, P. Moradi & F. Heidari, 2016. A study on the adsorption of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead elements in leaves of some woody species, Journal of Forest Research and Development, 4(4): 271-284. (In Persian)

- Malkoc. S., B. Yazıcı & A. S. Koparal, 2010. Assessment of the levels of heavy metal pollution in roadside soils of Eskisehir, Turkey, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 29(12): 2720-2725.

- Mason, Y., A. A. Ammann, A. Ulrich & L. Sigg, 1999. Behavior of heavy metals, nutrients, and major components during roof runoff infiltration, Environmental Science and Technology,33(10): 1588-1597.

- Merry, R. H., K. G. Tiller & A. M. Alston, 1986. The effects of contamination of soil with copper, lead and arsenic on the growth and composition of plants, Plant and Soil, 91(1): 115-128.

- Mingorance, M. D. & S. R. Oliva, 2006. Heavy Metals Content in N. oleander eaves as Urban Pollution Assessment, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 119(1-3): 57-68.

- Mirghfari, N., 2005. Investigation of lead concentration in some natural plant species around the lead and zinc mine of Isfahan, Iran, Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 58(3): 635-644. (In Persian)

- Panndey, P. & A. K. Tripathi, 2011, Effect of heavy metals on morphological and biochemical characteristics of Albizia procera (Roxb.) benth seedlings, International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1(5): 1009-1118.

- Papazoglou, E. G. & A. L. Fernando, 2017. Preliminary studies on the growth, tolerance and phytoremediation ability of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown on heavy metal contaminated soil, Industrial Crops & Products, 107: 463-471.

- Piczak, K., A. Lesniewic & W. Zyrnicki, 2003. Metal concentration in deciduous tree leaves from urban Arasin Poland, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 86(3): 273-287.

- Pournia, M., M. H. Moosavi & Z. Jassemi, 2016. Survey of heavy metals pollution in surface soils around the industrial town of Ahvaz 2, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 17(4): 23-32. (In Persian)

- Radojevic, M. V. & N. Bashkin, 1999. Practical environmental analysis, Royal Society of Chemistry Press, 520 p.

- Sarwar, N., M. Imran, M. R. Shaheen, W. Ishaque, M. A. Kamran, A. Matloob, A. Rehim & S. Hussain, 2017. Phytoremediation strategies for soils contaminated with heavy metals: Modifications and future perspectives, Chemosphere, 171: 710-721.

- Shabanian, N. & C. Cheraghi, 2013. Comparison of phytoremediation of heavy metals by woody species used in urban forestry of Sanandaj city, Journal of Iranian Forest and Poplar Research, 21(1): 165-154. (In Persian)

- Solgi, E. & M. Keramaty, 2016. Assessment of health risks of urban soils contaminated by heavy metals (Bojnourd City), Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, 7(4): 813-827. (In Persian)

- Taghipour, M., H. Khademi & Sh. A. Ayoubi, 2010. Spatial variability of Pb and Zn concentration and its relationship with land use and parent materials in selected surface soils of Hamadan province, Journal of Water and Soil, 24(1): 132-144. (In Persian)

- Tomasevic, M., Z. Vukmirovic, S. Rajsic, M. Tasic & B. Stevanovic, 2008. Contribution to biomonitoring of some traces metals by deciduous tree leaves in urban areas. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 137(1-3): 393-401.

- Wuytack, T., K. Verhyen, K. Wuyts, F. Kardel, S. Adriaenssens & R. Samson, 2010. The potential of biomonitoring of air quality using leaf characteristics of white willow (Salix Alba L.), Environmental monitoring and assessment, 171(1-4): 197-204.

- Yap, C. K., A. Ismail, S. G. Tan & H. Omar, 2002. Correlations between speciation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in sediment and their concentrations in total soft tissue of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, Environment International, 28(1-2): 117-126.