بررسی فیتوشیمیایی و پالینولوژی‌ خزه‌های ‏Forsstroemia remotifolia، ‏Homalia besseri‏ و ‏Pseudoleskeella ‎catenulata‏ در شمال ایران

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم گیاهی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

2 موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، باغ گیا هشناسی نوشهر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

خزه‌ها گیاهانی با اندازه کوچک، غیرآوندی و بی‌گل هستند. گونهForsstroemia remotifolia ، قبلاً متعلق به‌تیره Leskeaceae  بوده و نام قدیمی آن Pseudoleskeella laxiramea (Schiffn.)Broth است که بر اساس جدیدترین تحقیقات صورت گرفته بر پایه ریخت‌شناسی، در تیره Neckeraceaeقرار داده شده است. در تحقیق حاضر، به‌منظور برطرف کردن ابهاماتی که در رده‌بندی این گونه وجود داشته است، بررسی فیتوشیمیایی و پالینولوژی در گونه‌های F. remotifolia، Homalia besseri و Pseudoleskeella catenulata ضروری به‌نظر می‌رسد. نتایج حاصل از داده‌های کروماتوگرافی گازی (GC/MS) نشان داد که گونۀ‌ F. remotifoliaدارای 21 نوع اسید چرب، گونۀ H. besseriدارای 23 نوع اسید چرب و گونۀ P. catenulataدارای18 نوع اسید چرب است. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌های اسیدهای چرب بیان‌کننده 53/61 درصد تشابه در ترکیبات اسیدهای چرب در بین گونه‌های F. remotifolia و P. catenulata است. نتایج حاصل از داده‌های پالینولوژی نشان داد که شکل هاگ در جمعیت‌های مربوط به‌گونۀ F. remotifolia،کروی بوده و شکل هاگ در جمعیت‌های H. besseriبه‌صورت oblate است. شکل هاگ در جمعیت علی‌آباد (گلستان) متعلق به‌گونۀ H. besseri به‌صورت prolate بوده و همچنین شکل هاگ جمعیت‌ دودانگه (مازندران) متعلق به‌گونۀ P. catenulata به‌صورت کروی است. نتایج کلی حاصل از انجام بررسی فیتوشیمیایی و پالینولوژی بیانگر این واقعیت است که این نتایج کاملاً با یکدیگر مطابقت داشته و نشان دهنده شباهت و نزدیکی گونه F. remotifoliaبه‌گونۀP. catenulata است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Phytochemical and Palynological Study of Forsstroemia remotifolia, Homalia besseri ‎and Pseudoleskeella catenulata in North of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Sepideh Seyed Mousavi Mashaki 1
  • Arman Mahmoudi Otaghvari 1
  • Habib Zare 2
  • Tahereh A. Aghajanzadeh 1
1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, I.R. Iran.
2 Nowshahr Botanical Garden, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, I.R. Iran.
چکیده [English]

Mosses are small, non-vascular and non-flowering plants. Forsstroemia remotifolia was previously belonging to Leskeaceae family and its old name is Pseudoleskeella laxiramea (Schiffn.) Broth. According to recent morphological researches, changed from Leskeaceae family to the Neckeraceae family. Therefore, in present study, to eliminate the ambiguities in classification of this species, phytochemical and palynological investigation in F. remotifolia, Homalia besseri, and P. catenulata seems necessary. The results of gas chromatography (GC/MS) are showed that, F. remotifolia has 21 different types of fatty acids, H. besseri contains 23 types and P. catenulata possesses 18 types. Analysis of fatty acids has been shown 61.53% similarity in fatty acid compounds between F. remotifolia, and P. catenulata. Results of palynology showed that spore shape in populations of F. remotifolia is spheroidal and spore shape in populations of H. besseri is oblate, but the spore shape in population of H. b. A belonging to H. besseri is prolate and also the spore shape in population of P. c. Do. belonging to P. catenulata is spheroidal. Overall results of chemotaxonomy and palynology indicate close relationship between F. remotifolia, and P. catenulata.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biosystematics
  • Diversity of Fatty acids
  • moss
  • Spore
  • Hyrcanian‎
-Akhani, H. & H. Kürschner, 2004. An annotated and updated checklist of the Iranian bryoflora, Cryptogamie Bryologie,25(4): 315-347.
-Akiyama, H., 1994. Suggestions for the delimitation of the Leucodontaceae and the infrageneric classication of the genus Leucodon. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory,76: 1-12.
-Alfayate, C., E. Ron, B. Estébanez, & M. Á. Pérez-Batista, 2013. Mature spores of four pleurocarpous mosses in the Canary Islands: ultrastructure and early germination stages, The Bryologist, 116(2): 97-112.
-Asakawa, Y., 1995. Chemical Constituents of the Bryophytes: In Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products. Springer, Vienna, 562 p.
-Brubaker, L., P. Anderson, B. Murray, & D. Koon, 1998. A palynological investigation of true-moss (Bryidae) spores: Morphology and occurrence in modern and late Quaternary lake sediments of Alaska, Canadian Journal of Botany, 76(12): 2145-2157.
-Buchanan, B. B., W. Gruissem, & R. L. Jones, 2015. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. second edition. John Wiley & Sons, 1261 p.
-Buck, W. R. 1980. Animadversions on Pterigynandrum with special commentary on Forsstroemia and Leptopterigynandrum. The Bryologist, 451-465.
-Buck, W. R., H. Akiyama, T. Arikawa, H. Tsubota, D. GonzÁlez, A. E. Newton, & A. J. Shaw, 2000. Ordinal phylogeny within the hypnobryalean pleurocarpous mosses inferred from cladistic analyses of three chloroplast DNA sequence data sets: trnL-F, rps4, and rbcL, The Bryologist, 103(2): 242-256.
-Buhse, F. W. D. & E. Boissier, 1860. Aufzaehlung der auf einer Reise durch Transkaukasien und Persien gesammelten Pflanzen: nebst einleitendem Reiseberichte: Gautier.
-Clarke, G., 1979. Spore morphology and bryophyte systematics in: Clarke GCS, Duckett JG, editors. eds. Bryophyte Systematics. 250 pp.
-Croisier, E., M. Rempt, & G. Pohnert, 2010. Survey of volatile oxylipins and their biosynthetic precursors in bryophytes, Phytochemistry, 71(5-6): 574-580.
-Edw, W., 1920. Mosses from the Caspian and Black Sea regions, The Bryologist, 90-91.
-Frey, W., 1981. The bryological literature of southwest Asia,Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory, 50: 217-229.
-Frey, W. & H. Kürschner, 1977. Studies on the bryophyte flora and vegetation of the Mohammad Reza Shah National Park, N  Iran,  Iranian Journal of Botany, 1: 137-153.
-Frey, W. & H. Kürschner, 1979. Die epiphytische Moosvegetation im hyrkanischen Waldgebiet (Nordiran). Beih. Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Reihe A (Naurwissenschaften), Wiesbaden, 5, 99 pp.
-Frey, W. & H. Kürschner, 1983. Contributions towards a bryophyte flora of Iran. New records from Iran, Iranian Journal of Botany, 2(1): 13-19.
-Frey, W. & H. Kürschner, 2010. New and noteworthy records to the bryophyte flora of Iran, Nova Hedwigia, 90(3-4): 503-512.
-Ghahreman, A., M. Faridi, S. Shirzadian, & F. Attar, 2007. New and interesting moss records for Iran, Turkish Journal of Botany, 31(1): 41-48.
-Goffinet, B. & W. R. Buck, 2004. Systematics of the Bryophyta (mosses): from molecules to a revised classification, Journal of Molecular systematics of Bryophytes. Monographs in Systematic Botany, 98: 205-239.
-Hedenas, L. & H. Zare, 2010. The Euxinian-Hyrcanian endemic species Forsstroemia remotifolia (Lindb. ex Broth) Hedenas & Zare, comb nov (Neckeraceae, Bryophyta), Nova Hedwigia, 61-67.
-Ignatov, M. & V. Y. Cherdantseva, 1995. The families Cryphaeaceae, Leucodontaceae and Leptodontaceae (Musci) in Russia, Arctoa, 4: 65-104.
-Ireland, R. R., 1974. Neomacounia, a new genus in the Neckeraceae (Musci) from Canada, The Bryologist, 453-459.
-Juratzka, J. & J. Milde, 1870. Beitrag zur Moosflora des Orientes: Kleinasiens, das westliche Persien und den Caucasus unfassend: Zoologisch-botanische Gesellschaft.
-Kenrick, P. & P. R. Crane, 1997. The origin and early evolution of plants on land, Nature, 389(6646): 33-39.
-Khoshravesh, R. & S. K. Osaloo, 2007. Spore morphology of certain mosses of northern Tehran-Iran: taxonomical and ecological implications, The Iranian Journal of Botany, 13(2): 150-159.
-Kohn, G., S. Demmerle, O. Vandekerkhove, E. Hartmann, & P. Beutelmann, 1987. Distribution and chemotaxonomic significance of acetylenic fatty acids in mosses of the Dicranales, Phytochemistry, 26(8): 2271-2275.
-Koskimies, K. & L. K., Simola, 1980. The fatty acid composition of some Sphagnum species, Canadian Journal of Botany, 58(2), 259-263.
-Kürschner, H., 1996. Towards a bryophyte flora of the Near and Middle East. New records from Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Turkey, Nova Hedwigia, 63(1): 261-272.
-Kürschner, H., B. Papp, & H., Akhani, 2000. New records to the bryophyte flora of Iran. Studies on the flora and vegetation of the Golestan National Park, NE Iran IV, Nova Hedwigia, 71(3-4): 509-518.
-Kürschner, H. & W. Frey, 2011. Liverworts, mosses and hornworts of southwest Asia (Marchantiophyta, Bryophyta, Anthocerotophyta). Nova Hedwigia, Beihefte, Beih. 139, Germany, 240 pp.
-Kürschner, H., M. Kırmacı, A. Erdağ, K. Batsatsashvili & G. Parolly, 2012. Ecology and life strategies of epiphytic bryophyte communities from the Arcto-Tertiary relict forests of the Black and Caspian Sea areas, Nova Hedwigia, 94(1): 31-65.
-Lindberg, S., 1863. Om ett nytt slagte, Epipterygium, Oefversigt Svensk Vetenskapsakademiens Forhandlingar, 19: 599-609.
-Luizi-Ponzo, A. P. & O. M., Barth, 1998. Spore morphology of some Dicranaceae species (Bryophyta) from Brazil, Grana, 38(1): 42-49.
-Luizi‐Ponzo, A. P. & O. M., Barth, 1999. Spore morphology of some Bruchiaceae species (Bryophyta) from Brazil, Grana, 37(4): 222-227.
-Manuel, M. G., 1974. A revised classification of the Leucodontaceae and a revision of the subfamily Alsioideae, The Bryologist, 531-550.
-Marsili, A., I. Morelli, C. Bernardini, & M. Pacchiani, 1972. Constituents of some mosses, Phytochemistry, 11(6): 2003-2005.
-Mitra, S., 2017.  High content of Dicranin in Anisothecium spirale (Mitt.) Broth., a moss from Eastern Himalayas and its chemotaxonomic significance, Lipids, 52(2): 173-178.
-Mongrand, S., A. Badoc, B. Patouille, C. Lacomblez, M. Chavent, & J. J. Bessoule, 2005. Chemotaxonomy of the Rubiaceae family based on leaf fatty acid composition, Phytochemistry, 66(5): 549-559.
-Naqinezhad, A., S. H. Saeidi Mehrvarz, M. Noroozi,  & M. FARIDI, 2007. Contribution to the vascular and bryophyte flora as well as habitat diversity of the Boujagh National Park, N. Iran, Rostaniha, 7(2): 125-126.
-Nyholm, E., 1975. Illustrated moss flora of Fennoscandia. II. Musci. second edition. Swedish Natural Science Research Council. Swedish.
-Olsson, S., V. Buchbender, J. Enroth, S. Huttunen, L. Hedenäs, & D. Quandt, 2009. Evolution of the Neckeraceae (Bryophyta): resolving the backbone phylogeny, Systematics and Biodiversity, 7(4): 419-432.
-Pejin, B., L. V. Vujisić, M. Sabovljevic, A. Sabovljevic, V. Tešević, & V. Vajs, 2010. Preliminary analysis of fatty acid chemistry of Kindbergia praelonga and Kindbergia stokesii (Brachytheciaceae), Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 75(12): 1637-1640.
-Potoglu Erkara, I. & F. Savaroglu, 2007. Spore morphology of some Brachytheciaceae Schimp. species (Bryophyta) from Turkey, Nordic Journal of Botany, 25(3‐4): 194-198.
-Proctor, M. & P. Yeo, 1973. The pollination of flowers. British Ecological Society, Wiley, London. 418 pp.
-Rütten, D. & K. A, Santarius, 1992. Age-related differences in frost sensitivity of the photosynthetic apparatus of two Plagiomnium species, Planta, 187(2): 224-229.
-Rütten, D. & K. A. Santarius, 1993. Seasonal variation in frost tolerance and sugar content of two Plagiomnium species, The Bryologist, 564-568.
-Safaiipour, Zh. & Z. Nazem Bokaei, 2005. Comparative study of capsule structure in five species of mosses in Northern Iran, Journal of Research and construction, 17(4): 78-86. (In Persian)
-Saritas, Y., M. M. Sonwa, H. Iznaguen, W. A. König, H. Muhle, & R. Mues, 2001. Volatile constituents in mosses (Musci), Journal of Phytochemistry, 57(3): 443-457.
-Schiffner, V., 1897. Musci Bornmülleriani, Ein Beitrag zur Cryptogamenflora des Orients. Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 47(4): 125-132.
-Schiffner, V., 1901. Einige Materialien zur Moosflora des Orients. Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 51(5): 156-161.
-Schiffner, V., 1908. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Bryophyten von Persien und Lydien. Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 58(6): 225-231.
-Schiffner, V., 1910. Bryologische Fragmente. Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, 60(11): 431-436.
-Sharifnia, F. S. Cheraghi Nav, F. Salimpour, & S. Akhondi Darzikolayi, 2011. Report two new records of the Hylocomiaceae family for the Iranian bryoflora. Plant Enviromental Physiology, 6(24): 46-52. (In Persian)
-Shaw, A. J. & B., Goffinet, 2000. Bryophyte biology, frist edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 396 p.
-Shirzadian, S., 2011. Five new records of mosses to the bryophyte flora of Iran, Phytomorphology, 61(3-4): 68-71.
-Stark, L. R., 1987. A taxonomic monograph of Forsstroemia Lindb.(Bryopsida: Leptodontaceae), Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory,63: 133-218.
-Townsend, C., 1966. Mosses from Iran and Afghanista, Transactions of the British Bryological Society, 5(1): 131-135.
-Wyatt, R., D. M. Lane, & A. Stoneburner, 1991a. Chemosystematics of the Mniaceae. II. Flavonoids of Plagiomnium Section Rosulata, The Bryologist, 443-448.
-Wyatt, R., D. M. Lane, & A. Stoneburner, 1991b. Chemosystematics of the Mniaceae. III. Sources of intraspecific variation in flavonoids, The Bryologist, 452-456.
-Xie, C. F. & H. X. Lou, 2009. Secondary metabolites in bryophytes: an ecological aspect. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 6(3): 303-312.
-Zare, H. M. Akbarinia, L. Hedenäs, & A. A. Maassumi, 2011. Eighteen mosses from the Hyrcanian forest region new to Iran, Journal of Bryology, 33(1): 62-65.
-Zare, M., M. Akbarinia, & H. Zare, 2015. Identification of corticolous Moss in Caucasian Walnut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Poir.) Spach) and relation of species diversity of the Moss with some bark physic–chemical characterizations, Journal of Forest Research and Development, 1(1): 43-53. (In Persian)
-Zare, H., L. Hedenäs, M. Akbarinia, & T. Amini, 2017. The Importance of Moss Biodiversity Conservation in Iran, Nature, 4(2): 56-59. (In Persian)