دانش سنتی جنگل‌نشینان زاگرس در ارتباط با ارزش‌های دارویی گیاهان چوبی و علفی (پژوهش موردی: جنگل-‏های خرم‌آباد، استان لرستان)‏

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی، بخش تحقیقات جنگل، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری جنگلداری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‌آباد، ایران

3 دانشیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

ارتباط انسان با جنگل از آغاز خلقت منجر به شکل‌گیری دانش سنتی شده که به‌طور عمده در راستای رفع نیازهای انسان بوده است. گیاه­مردم­نگاری به بررسی دانش­های سنتی مرتبط با گیاهان در جوامع محلی پرداخته و یکی از شاخه‌های مهم آن مربوط به ارزش‌های دارویی گیاهان است. باتوجه به وجود جوامع محلی مختلف در جنگل‌های زاگرس و تنوع دانش­های سنتی در این منطقه و همچنین کمبود اطلاعات موجود در این زمینه، در پژوهش پیش­رو سعی شد دانش سنتی مرتبط با ارزش‌های دارویی گیاهان در سامان عرفی چنارکل شهرستان خرم­آباد بررسی شود. اطلاعات مورد نیاز با استفاده از روش نمونه­گیری گلوله‌برفی، استفاده از مطلعین کلیدی و انتخاب هدفمند جمع‌آوری شد. براساس نتایج، 44 گونه چوبی و علفی دارویی و خوراکی (به­طور عمده میوه درختان و درختچه­ها) در منطقه شناسایی و دانش سنتی مربوط به آن­ها به­ویژه کاربرد محلی و شیوه مصرف ثبت شد. در بین اندام­های گیاهی مورد استفاده، میوه و برگ به‌ترتیب با 27 و 5/23 درصد بیشترین سهم را داشتند. 20 گونه فقط استفاده خوراکی داشتند، در حالی‌که گیاهانی که فقط مصرف دارویی داشتند، نه گونه بودند. 24 گونه (5/54 درصد) به‌صورت خام استفاده می‌شدند که عمده آن­ها یا میوه‌های خوراکی جنگلی مانند بنه و خینجوک بودند و یا مانند آب‌تره و پرسیاوش به‌صورت سبزی کاربرد داشتند. نتایج این پژوهش تأیید کرد که جوامع محلی به‌خوبی با ارزش دارویی و خوراکی گیاهان بومی منطقه آشنا هستند، منتهی تلفیق دانش سنتی غنی روستائیان و عشایر با مبانی حفظ و پایداری اکوسیستم موضوعی است که باید مورد توجه جدی قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Traditional knowledge of Zagros forest dwellers related to the medicinal values of ‎woody and herbaceous plants (case study: Khorramabad forests, Lorestan ‎Province)‎

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Pourhashemi 1
  • Ahmad Bazgir 2
  • Parisa Panahi 3
1 Scientific member, Forest Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D. Student of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Lorestan, Khorramabad, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Since the beginning of creation, man's relationship with the forest has led to the formation of traditional knowledge, which has been mainly aimed at meeting human needs. Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people. One of its important branches is related to the medicinal values of plants. Due to the existence of different local communities in the Zagros region and the diversity of traditional knowledge in this area, as well as the lack of information in this field, the study tried to study traditional knowledge related to medicinal properties of plants in the common-law forest area of Chenarkol in Khorramabad city, Lorestan province. Based on the results, 44 woody and herbaceous medicinal and edible (mainly fruit of trees and shrubs) species were identified in the area and their traditional knowledge especially their application and the way of preparation was recorded. Among the plant organs used, fruits and leaves had the largest share with 27% and 23.5%, respectively. Twenty species had only edible use, while only medicinal plants had nine species. Twenty-four species (54.5%) of the plants were used raw, most of which were either edible forest fruits (such as Pistachia atlantica and P. khinjuk) or as a vegetable (such as Nasturtium officinale and Adiantum capillus-veneris). The findings confirm that local communities in the area are well acquainted with the region's native medicinal plants and their medicinal and nutritional values, but combining the rich traditional knowledge of the villagers and nomads with the basics of conservation and sustaining the ecosystem is an issue that needs serious attention.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ethnobotany
  • Local community
  • medicinal properties
  • oral value
  • Zagros forests
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