ارزیابی برداشت چوب و دام بر تخریب جنگل با مدل بهینه تخریب

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه ارزیابی و مخاطرات محیط زیست، پژوهشکده محیط زیست و توسعه پایدار، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

طرح­های جنگلداری اغلب از اثرها و پیامدهای ناسازگار محیط‌زیستی مانند بهره‌برداری بی­رویه چوب و چرای دام برخوردارند. هدف از این پژوهش ارزیابی اثر برداشت چوب و دام بر تخریب جنگل خیرود نوشهر با استفاده از مدل بهینه تخریب جنگل و در چهار سناریوی وضعیت موجود، بدون برداشت چوب، بدون دام، و بدون برداشت چوب و دام است. واحدهای همگن محیط­زیستی با استفاده از منابع اکولوژیکی تهیه و مجموعه فعالیت­های انسانی انجام­شده و شدت اثرهای آن­ها در واحدهای همگن محیط­زیستی به­دست آمد. پس از پیش­بینی ضرایب مدل در سناریوهای ذکر­شده اقدام به مقایسه آماری خروجی­ها و بررسی معناداری تغییرات شد. مقایسه آماری ضرایب تخریب در چهار سناریو با توجه به غیرنرمال بودن داده­ها با استفاده از آزمون کروسکال والیس انجام شد. بر اساس سطح معناداری به­دست آمده تفاوت معناداری بین ضرایب تخریب سناریوهای مختلف وجود دارد. میانگین ضرایب تخریب در در هر یک از سناریوهای وضعیت موجود، حذف دام، حذف برداشت چوب و حذف هر دو فعالیت به­ترتیب برابر با 49/1، 72/0، 9/0 و 3/0 به­دست آمد. بر اساس نتایج پژوهش، دام مهم­ترین عامل تخریب جنگل و پس از آن بهره­برداری چوب قرار دارد. مدل مورد استفاده در این پژوهش به­عنوان یک سیستم پشتیبان تصمیم­گیری قابلیت بالایی در پیش­بینی و مقایسه سناریوها و سیاست­های مختلف مدیریتی در جنگل دارد و با استفاده از این مدل می­توان قبل و بعد از اجرا طرح جنگلداری اثرهای اجرای طرح را به­خوبی ارزیابی کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the wood harvesting and livestock on the degradation of forest using ‎‎optimized degradation model

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Jahani 1
  • Jahangir Feghhi 2
  • vahid etemad 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Assessment and Environment Risks, Research Venter of Environment ‎and Sustainable Development, Tehran, Karaj, I. R. Iran‎
2 Professor, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I. R. Iran‎
3 Associate Professor, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I. ‎R. ‎Iran
چکیده [English]

Forestry projects often result in inconsistent environmental impacts and consequences, including wood exploitation and livestock grazing. The aim of study is to evaluate the effect of wood harvesting and livestock on the degradation of Kheyrud Forest in Nowshahr city using the optimized forest degradation model in four scenarios of current situation, without wood harvesting, without livestock, and without wood harvesting and livestock. Homogeneous environmental units were prepared using ecological resources. A set of human activities and the intensity of the impacts in homogeneous environmental units were obtained. After predicting the coefficients of model in the scenarios, the statistical comparisons of the outputs and the significance of changes were evaluated. Due to the abnormality of the data, Kruskal-Wallis test was performed for statistical comparison of coefficients of degradation in four scenarios. Considering the results, there is a significant difference between the coefficients of degradation in different scenarios. The average coefficients of degradation in the current situation, without wood harvesting, without livestock, and without wood harvesting and livestock scenarios are 1.49, 0.72, 0.9 and 0.3 respectively. According to the results, livestock and wood exploitation are the most important factor influencing forest degradation. The model, which has been used in this research, has a high capability in predicting and comparing different scenarios and management policies as a decision support system in the forest; and using this model we can evaluate forest plan impacts before and after the implementation of project.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Forest management
  • Homogeneous Environmental Unit
  • Kheyrud ‎Forest
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